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Localisation par retournement temporel de sources acoustiques supersoniques en milieu réverbérant

Abstract : We are interested into the localisation of the Mach cone --- created by the supersonic motion of an acoustic source into a reverberant medium --- by means of a limited amount of microphones. The application concerns sniper localisation, hence protection of the soldier. Theory of time-reversal states that when reemitting measures reversed in time from their respective positions, everything happens as if the pressure field were propagating travelling backwards in time and focused on the source distribution. This result is enhanced when the microphone distribution over space forms a closed surface surrounding the sources, according to Kirchhoff-Helmholtz formula. Aiming at a physically and technologically implementable method, we consider a discrete distribution of microphones, disposed at a constant height in a reverberating area reproducing the geometry of a straight narrow street.The problem shows specific constraints due to its specific geometry that we aim to use sparsely. In a first approach, we consider the supersonic displacement from the viewpoint of Huygens-Fresnel principle as a discrete sum of monopolar sources, which allows an analytical formulation of the direct problem solvable by simple numerical simulations. This model is in agreement with an experimental framework, were the Mach cone is synthesized by means of a loudspeaker array. The resolution of the inverse problem is made by computing the time-reversed pressure field into vertical slices disposed along the street. The use of a fourth-order spatiotemporal statistical criterion (kurtosis) allows to reduce unwanted contribution of source term causing a divergence around microphone positions. A maximum of kurtosis is observed around the intersection between the time-reversal slice and the Mach cone axis, allowing localisation of the latter with good angular precision. In a second approach, we investigate the previous method on a real Mach cone. It is necessary to adopt the point of view of dynamical space-time geometry to understand the behaviour of the times of arrival of the different image sources. It is also necessary to take into account the finiteness of the reberberating walls. Our geometrical theory of reverberation allows a modelisation of the direct problem in good agreement with experimental measurements. We show that the effect of reverberation does not enhance time-reversed focalisation as well as it does with a static source. This is mainly due to geometric constraints that are not reproduced in the time-reversed wavefront superposition. The resolution of the inverse problem strongly depends on the disposition of the microphone set: on the 9 configurations, only one allows detection of the axis.
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Guillaume Mahenc. Localisation par retournement temporel de sources acoustiques supersoniques en milieu réverbérant. Acoustique [physics.class-ph]. Conservatoire national des arts et metiers - CNAM, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016CNAM1075⟩. ⟨tel-01552186⟩

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