E. Costes, Tree architecture and production, Horticultural Reviews, vol.32, pp.1-60, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01377095

Y. Lespinasse, Breeding apple tree: aims and methods, Proc. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the EAPR Breeding and Varietal Assessment Section and the EUCARPIA Potato Section, pp.103-110, 1992.

F. Laurens, Integration of architectural types in French programmes of ligneous fruit species genetic improvement, pp.141-152, 2000.

I. D. Wit, Architectural analysis of 1-year-old apple seedlings according to main shoot growth and sylleptic branching characteristics, Trees, vol.16, issue.7, pp.473-478, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/s00468-002-0189-z

V. Segura, Dissecting apple tree architecture into genetic, ontogenetic and environmental effects: mixed linear modelling of repeated spatial and temporal measures, New Phytologist, vol.14, issue.2, pp.302-314, 2008.
DOI : 10.1534/genetics.105.054775

DOI : 10.17660/ActaHortic.2004.663.61

J. S. Hanan and P. M. Room, Practical aspects of virtual plant research Advances in computational life sciences, pp.28-44, 1996.

B. Hu and M. Jaeger, Plant growth modeling and applications, Proceedings PMA03: 2003 International symposium on plant growth modeling, simulation, visualization and their applications, 2003.

C. Godin and H. Sinoquet, Functional-structural plant modelling, New Phytologist, vol.166, issue.3, pp.705-708, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01445.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01190931

T. Fourcaud, Plant Growth Modelling and Applications: The Increasing Importance of Plant Architecture in Growth Models, Annals of Botany, vol.101, issue.8, pp.1053-1063, 2008.
DOI : 10.1093/aob/mcn050

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00281936

T. M. Dejong, Using functional-structural plant models to study, understand and integrate plant development and ecophysiology, Annals of Botany, vol.108, issue.6, pp.987-989, 2011.
DOI : 10.1093/aob/mcr257

Y. Guo, Plant growth and architectural modelling and its applications, Annals of Botany, vol.107, issue.5, pp.723-727, 2011.
DOI : 10.1093/aob/mcr073

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00613651

E. Costes, MAppleT: simulation of apple tree development using mixed stochastic and biomechanical models, Functional Plant Biology, vol.35, issue.10, pp.936-950, 2008.
DOI : 10.1071/FP08081

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00831809

]. Y. Guédon, Pattern Analysis in Branching and Axillary Flowering Sequences, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.212, issue.4, pp.481-520, 2001.
DOI : 10.1006/jtbi.2001.2392

M. Renton, Similarities and gradients in growth unit branching patterns during ontogeny in 'Fuji' apple trees: a stochastic approach [17] E. Costes and Y. Guédon Modeling sequence of differenciation states during tree ontogeny: exploring within and between years dependencies of consecutive growth units in two apple tree cultivars The L+C plant modelling language, " Functional-Structural Plant Modelling in Crop Production A quantitative analysis of plant form ? the pipe model theory. (i) Basid analyses, Journal of Experimental Botany Trees -Structure and Function J. Vos, et al. Japanese Journal of Ecology, vol.57, issue.14, pp.3131-3143, 1964.

M. Willaume, Multiscale framework for modeling and analyzing light interception by trees OpenAlea: a visual programming and component-based software platform for plant modeling The ratio of shoot silhouette area to total needle area in scots pine Simulations of the effects of shoot structure and orientation on vertical gradients in intercepted light by conifer canopies The Interpretation Of Remote Sensing: A Feasibility Study Illumination from a non-uniform sky Exploring within-tree architectural development of two apple tree cultivars over 6 years, Trees Multiscale Modeling and Simulation Functional Plant Biology Forest Science Tree Physiology Transactions of the Illumination Engineering Society Annals of Botany, vol.18, issue.91 1, pp.705-713, 1942.

]. A. Saltelli, [29] R Development Core Team, R: A language and environment for statistical computing, reference index version 2.13.1, R Foundation for Statistical Computing Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis: Description of techniques A comparison of eight metamodeling techniques for the simulation of N 2 O fluxes and N leaching from corn crops, Sensitivity Analysis: Gauging the Worth of Scientific Models, pp.28-54, 2000.

A. Christophe, L.), International Journal of Plant Sciences, vol.164, issue.3, pp.359-370, 2003.
DOI : 10.1086/374194

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00699095

R. W. Pearcy, Crown architecture in sun and shade environments: assessing function and trade-offs with a three-dimensional simulation model, New Phytologist, vol.24, issue.3, pp.791-800, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01328.x

V. Sarlikioti, How plant architecture affects light absorption and photosynthesis in tomato: towards an ideotype for plant architecture using a functional-structural plant model, Annals of Botany, vol.108, issue.6, pp.1065-1073, 2011.
DOI : 10.1093/aob/mcr221

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01132291

G. S. Khush, TIMELINE: Green revolution: the way forward, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol.2, issue.10, pp.815-822, 2001.
DOI : 10.1038/35093585

D. Yang, Size-dependent leaf area ratio in plant twigs: implication for leaf size optimization, Annals of Botany, vol.105, issue.1, pp.71-77, 2010.
DOI : 10.1093/aob/mcp262

R. L. Wu, Genetic mapping of QTLs affecting tree growth and architecture in Populus: implication for ideotype breeding, Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol.96, issue.3-4, pp.447-457, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/s001220050761