Modélisation du mercure, du plomb et du cadmium à l'échelle européenne

Abstract : Since its adoption in 1979, the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution has addressed some of the major environmental problems of the UNECE region. In this framework the protocol on heavy metals, signed in 1998, gives first priority to lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg). These heavy metals and their compounds are highly toxic substances, being likely to bio-accumulate in organisms. Understanding and modelling their transport and fate in the atmosphere allow to take more effective decision to reduce their impact on the ecosystems. POLAIR 3D is a three-dimensional chemistry-transport model developed within the modelling system POLYPHEMUS at CEREA. It is designed to handle a wide range of applications from passive transport to photo-chemistry and aerosol modelling, and has been recently extended to deal with heavy metals at European scale. Removal processes have been carefully taken into account since deposition fluxes are more worrying than air concentrations. Most of the heavy metals in the atmosphere have a passive chemical behaviour but are carried by the aerosol phase. For this reason their rate of removal are linked to those of aerosol particles. Mercury differs because of its high saturated vapour pressure and mainly being found under gaseous elemental form. However it is essential to simulate mercury chemistry in gaseous and aqueous phases since oxidised mercury species represent the main part of the deposited mercury mass. Simulated air concentrations and deposition fluxes are evaluated by comparison to data of the EMEP measurement network. Sensitivity analysis has been performed using adjoint techniques. Such investigation being required to handle in a suitable way our developed model. Moreover, these techniques allow to carry out inverse modelling to improve boundary conditions which are crucial with a restricted area model.
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Yelva Roustan, Marc Bocquet, Luc Musson-Genon, Bruno Sportisse. Modélisation du mercure, du plomb et du cadmium à l'échelle européenne. Pollution Atmosphérique : climat, santé, société, Le Kremlin Bicêtre : Revue Pollution atmosphérique, 2006, 48 (191), pp.317-327. ⟨hal-00826909⟩

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