B. Bessagnet, L. Menut, G. Curci, A. Hodzic, B. Guillaume et al., Regional modeling of carbonaceous aerosols over Europe???focus on secondary organic aerosols, Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol.112, issue.19, pp.175-202, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s10874-009-9129-2

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00518382

M. Bocquet, Reconstruction of an atmospheric tracer source using the principle of maximum entropy. I: Theory, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.105, issue.610, pp.2191-2208, 2005.
DOI : 10.1256/qj.04.67

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inria-00527210

M. J. Bocquet and . Roy, Parameter-field estimation for atmospheric dispersion: application to the Chernobyl accident using 4D-Var, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.113, issue.664, pp.664-681, 2012.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.961

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00705045

R. H. Byrd, P. Lu, and J. Nocedal, A Limited Memory Algorithm for Bound Constrained Optimization, SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, vol.16, issue.5, pp.1190-1208, 1995.
DOI : 10.1137/0916069

B. Chapnik, G. Desroziers, F. Rabier, T. , and O. J. Roy, Properties and first application of an error-statistics tuning method in variational assimilation, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.123, issue.601, pp.2253-2275, 2006.
DOI : 10.1256/qj.03.26

G. Curci, P. I. Palmer, T. P. Kurosu, K. Chance, and G. Visconti, Estimating European volatile organic compound emissions using satellite observations of formaldehyde from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.105194, pp.11501-1151710, 2010.

X. Davoine and M. Bocquet, Inverse modelling-based reconstruction of the Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.7, issue.6, pp.1549-1564, 1549.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-7-1549-2007

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328489

G. Desroziers and S. Ivanov, Diagnosis and adaptive tuning of observation-error parameters in a variational assimilation, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.108, issue.574, pp.1433-1452, 2001.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712757417

G. Dufour, F. Wittrock, M. Camredon, M. Beekmann, A. Richter et al., SCIAMACHY formaldehyde observations: constraint for isoprene emission estimates over Europe?, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.9, issue.5, pp.1647-166410, 1647.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-9-1647-2009

H. Elbern, A. Strunk, H. Schmidt, T. , and O. , Emission rate and chemical state estimation by 4-dimensional variational inversion, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.7, issue.14, pp.3749-3769, 2007.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-7-3749-2007

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328512

H. Fagerli, M. Gauss, J. Jonson, ´. A. Nyíri, D. Simpson et al., Transboundary acidification, euthrophication and ground level ozone in Europe, 2008.

T. Fu, D. Jacob, P. Palmer, K. Chance, Y. Wang et al., Space-based formaldehyde measurements as constraints on volatile organic compound emissions in east and south Asia and implications for ozone, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.109, issue.4, pp.631210-1029, 2007.
DOI : 10.1029/2006JD007853

W. S. Goliff, W. R. Stockwell, L. , and C. V. , The regional atmospheric chemistry mechanism, version 2, Atmospheric Environment, vol.68, issue.2, pp.174-185, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.11.038

A. Guenther, C. Geron, T. Pierce, B. Lamb, P. Harley et al., Natural emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen from North America, Atmospheric Environment, vol.34, issue.12-14, pp.2205-2230, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00465-3

A. Guenther, T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P. I. Palmer et al., Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature), Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.65194, issue.6, pp.3181-321010, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00295995

R. Harley and G. Cass, Modeling the atmospheric concentrations of individual volatile organic compounds, Atmospheric Environment, vol.29, issue.8, pp.905-922, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/1352-2310(94)00287-U

K. Ho, S. Ho, Y. Cheng, S. Lee, Y. et al., Real-world emission factors of fifteen carbonyl compounds measured in a Hong Kong tunnel, Atmospheric Environment, vol.41, issue.8, pp.1747-1758, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.10.027

J. R. Hopkins, M. J. Evans, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, J. Marsham et al., Direct estimates of emissions from the megacity of Lagos, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.95194, pp.8471-847710, 2009.

L. W. Horowitz, S. Walters, D. L. Mauzerall, L. K. Emmons, P. J. Rasch et al., A global simulation of tropospheric ozone and related tracers: Description and evaluation of MOZART, J. Geophys. Res, vol.108, issue.2, p.478410, 1029.

Y. Kim, K. Sartelet, and C. Seigneur, Comparison of two gas-phase chemical kinetic mechanisms of ozone formation over Europe, Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol.36, issue.D12, pp.89-119, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s10874-009-9142-5

Y. Kim, K. Sartelet, and C. Seigneur, Formation of secondary aerosols over Europe: comparison of two gas-phase chemical mechanisms, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.11, issue.2, pp.583-59810, 2011.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-11-583-2011

T. W. Kirchstetter, B. C. Singer, H. , and R. A. , Impact of Oxygenated Gasoline Use on California Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.30, issue.2, pp.661-670, 1996.
DOI : 10.1021/es950406p

M. R. Koohkan and M. Bocquet, Accounting for representativeness errors in the inversion of atmospheric constituent emissions: application to the retrieval of regional carbon monoxide fluxes, Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, vol.22, issue.1, 2012.
DOI : 10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.19047

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00741930

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, M. Vrekoussis, A. Richter, F. Wittrock et al., Exploring the missing source of glyoxal (CHOCHO) over China, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.115, issue.14, pp.0-010, 2013.
DOI : 10.1029/2009JD012745

V. Mallet, D. Quélo, B. Sportisse, M. Ahmed-de-biasi, ´. E. Debry et al., Technical Note: The air quality modeling system Polyphemus, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.75194, pp.5479-548710, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328547

G. I. Marchuk, Numerical Solution of the Problems of the Dynamics of the Atmosphere and Ocean, Gigrometeoizdat, in Russian, 1974.

D. Millet, D. Jacob, K. Boersma, T. Fu, T. Kurosu et al., Spatial distribution of isoprene emissions from North America derived from formaldehyde column measurements by the OMI satellite sensor, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.57, issue.3???4, pp.230710-1029, 2008.
DOI : 10.1029/2007JD008950

N. R. Passant, Speciation of UK Emissions of NMVOC, 2002.

S. A. Penkett, J. , B. N. Lightman, P. Marsh, A. R. Anwyl et al., The seasonal variation of nonmethane hydrocarbons in the free troposphere over the North Atlantic Ocean: Possible evidence for extensive reaction of hydrocarbons with the nitrate radical, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.25, issue.A, pp.2865-2885, 1993.
DOI : 10.1029/92JD02162

W. R. Pierson, A. W. Gerlter, and R. L. Bradow, Comparison of the SCAQS Tunnel Study with Other On Road Vehicle Emission Data, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, vol.40, issue.11, pp.1495-1504, 1990.
DOI : 10.1080/10473289.1990.10466799

B. Pun, S. Wu, C. Seigneur, J. H. Seinfeld, R. J. Griffin et al., Uncertainties in Modeling Secondary Organic Aerosols:?? Three-Dimensional Modeling Studies in Nashville/Western Tennessee, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.37, issue.16, pp.3647-3661, 2003.
DOI : 10.1021/es0341541

D. Quélo, V. Mallet, and B. Sportisse, Inverse modeling of NO x emissions at regional scale over northern France: Preliminary investigation of the second-order sensitivity, J. Geophys. Res, pp.10-1029, 2005.

Y. Roustan and M. Bocquet, Inverse modelling for mercury over Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.63085, issue.6, pp.3085-3098, 2006.
DOI : 10.5194/acpd-6-795-2006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328452

J. Rudolph and D. Ehhalt, hydrocarbons over the North Atlantic, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.86, issue.C12, pp.11959-11964, 1981.
DOI : 10.1029/JC086iC12p11959

J. Rudolph and F. J. Johnen, Measurements of light atmospheric hydrocarbons over the Atlantic in regions of low biological activity, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.168, issue.D12, pp.20583-20591, 1990.
DOI : 10.1029/JD095iD12p20583

K. Sartelet, E. Debry, K. Fahey, Y. Roustan, M. Tombette et al., Simulation of aerosols and gas-phase species over Europe with the Polyphemus system: Part I???Model-to-data comparison for 2001, Atmospheric Environment, vol.41, issue.29, pp.6116-6131, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.04.024

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inria-00633774

K. Sartelet, F. Couvidat, C. Seigneur, and Y. And-roustan, Impact of biogenic emissions on air quality over Europe and North America, Atmospheric Environment, vol.53, pp.131-141, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.10.046

S. Sauvage, Origine et comportement des composés hydrocarbonés non-méthaniques (HCNM) en zone rurale, 2008.

R. Sawyer, R. Harley, S. Cadle, J. Norbeck, R. Slott et al., Mobile sources critical review: 1998 NARSTO assessment, Atmospheric Environment, vol.34, issue.12-14, pp.2161-2181, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00463-X

C. Shim, Y. Wang, Y. Choi, P. Palmer, D. Abbot et al., Constraining global isoprene emissions with Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) formaldehyde column measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.103, issue.D21, pp.10-1029, 2005.
DOI : 10.1029/2004JD005629

D. Simpson, W. Winiwarter, G. Börjesson, S. Cinderby, A. Ferreiro et al., Inventorying emissions from nature in Europe, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.4, issue.1, pp.8113-8152, 1999.
DOI : 10.1029/98JD02747

J. Staehelin, C. Keller, W. Stahel, K. Schläpfer, and S. Wunderli, Emission factors from road traffic from a tunnel study (Gubrist tunnel, Switzerland). Part III, Atmospheric Environment, vol.32, issue.6, pp.999-1009, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00339-7

T. Stavrakou, J. Müller, I. De-smedt, M. Van-roozendael, M. Kanakidou et al., The continental source of glyoxal estimated by the synergistic use of spaceborne measurements and inverse modelling, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.95194, pp.8431-844610, 2009.

K. Stemmler, S. Bugmann, B. Buchmann, S. Reimann, and J. Staehelin, Large decrease of VOC emissions of Switzerland's car fleet during the past decade: results from a highway tunnel study, Atmospheric Environment, vol.39, issue.6, pp.1009-1018, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.10.010

L. Tarrasón, H. Fagerli, J. Jonson, D. Simpson, A. Benedictow et al., Transboundary acidification, euthrophication and ground level ozone in Europe, 2005.

M. Touaty and B. Bonsang, Hydrocarbon emissions in a highway tunnel in the Paris area, Atmospheric Environment, vol.34, issue.6, pp.985-99610, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00195-8

M. Uliasz, Application of the Perturbation Theory to the Sensitivity Analysis of an Air Pollution Model, Z. Meteor, vol.33, pp.355-362, 1983.

K. Vijayaraghavan, H. Snell, and C. Seigneur, Practical Aspects of Using Satellite Data in Air Quality Modeling, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.42, issue.22, pp.8187-8192, 2008.
DOI : 10.1021/es7031339

C. Warneke, J. A. De-gouw, D. Negro, L. Brioude, J. Mckeen et al., Biogenic emission measurement and inventories determination of biogenic emissions in the eastern United States and Texas and comparison with biogenic emission inventories, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.35, issue.11, pp.0-1810, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2009JD012445

V. Winiarek, M. Bocquet, O. Saunier, and A. Mathieu, Estimation of errors in the inverse modeling of accidental release of atmospheric pollutant: Application to the reconstruction of the cesium-137 and iodine-131 source terms from the Fukushima Daiichi power plant, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.96, issue.D5, pp.512210-1029, 2012.
DOI : 10.1029/2011JD016198

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00761575

Y. Xiao, J. Logan, D. Jacob, R. Hudman, R. Yantosca et al., Global budget of ethane and regional constraints on U.S. sources, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.107, issue.D18, pp.10-1029, 2008.
DOI : 10.1029/2007JD009415