T. Hoblyn, N. Grubb, A. Painter, and B. Wates, Studies in Biennial Bearing.???I, Journal of Pomology and Horticultural Science, vol.14, issue.1, pp.39-76, 1936.
DOI : 10.1080/03683621.1937.11513464

J. Huet, Etude des effets des feuilles et des fruits sur l " induction florale des brachyblastes du Poirier, Physiologie Végétale, vol.10, pp.529-545, 1972.

A. Huff, A significance test for biennial bearing using data resampling, Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology, vol.76, pp.534-535, 2001.

H. Jonkers, Biennial bearing in apple and pear: A literature survey, Scientia Horticulturae, vol.11, issue.4, pp.303-307, 1979.
DOI : 10.1016/0304-4238(79)90015-3

A. Karatzoglou, A. Smola, K. Hornik, and A. Zeileis, kernlab -An S4 Package for Kernel Methods in R, Journal of Statistical Software, vol.11, issue.9, pp.1-20, 2004.

P. Lauri and J. Lespinasse, Integration of architectural types in French programmes of ligneous fruit species genetic improvement, Fruits, vol.55, pp.141-52, 2000.

P. Lauri, E. Térouanne, and J. Lespinasse, Relationship between the early development of apple fruiting branches and the regularity of bearing???An approach to the strategies of various cultivars, Journal of Horticultural Science, vol.72, issue.4, pp.519-530, 1997.
DOI : 10.1080/14620316.1997.11515539

P. Lauri, E. Térouanne, J. Lespinasse, J. Regnard, and J. Kelner, Genotypic differences in the axillary bud growth and fruiting pattern of apple fruiting branches over several years???an approach to regulation of fruit bearing, Scientia Horticulturae, vol.64, issue.4, pp.265-281, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0304-4238(95)00836-5

Y. Lespinasse, Le pommier Amélioration des espèces végétales cultivées, objectifs et critères de sélection, pp.579-594, 1992.

G. Mclachlan and D. Peel, Finite Mixture Models, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/0471721182

S. Monselise and E. Goldschmidt, Alternate bearing in fruit trees, Horticultural Reviews, vol.4, pp.128-173, 1982.

J. Neilsen and F. Dennis, Effects of seed number, fruit removal, bourse shoot length and crop density on flowering in " Spencer Seedless " apple, Acta Horticulturae, vol.527, pp.137-146, 2000.

S. Pearce and S. Dobersek-urbane, The Measurement of Irregularity in Growth and Cropping, Journal of Horticultural Science, vol.42, issue.3, pp.295-305, 1967.
DOI : 10.1080/00221589.1967.11514216

R. Development and C. Team, R: A language and environment for statistical computing, 2008.

Y. Reddy, R. Kurian, P. Ramachander, G. Singh, and R. Kohli, Long-term effects of rootstocks on growth and fruit yielding patterns of ???Alphonso??? mango (Mangifera indica L.), Scientia Horticulturae, vol.97, issue.2, pp.95-108, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0304-4238(02)00025-0

T. Rosenstock, U. Rosa, R. Plant, and P. Brown, A reevaluation of alternate bearing in pistachio, Scientia Horticulturae, vol.124, issue.2, pp.149-152, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scienta.2009.12.007

S. Sabatier, D. Barthélémy, I. Ducousso, and É. Germain, Modalités d " allongement et morphologie des pousses annuelles chez le noyer commun, Juglans regia L, Canadian Journal of Botany, vol.76, pp.1253-1264, 1998.
DOI : 10.1139/b98-055

V. Segura, C. Cilas, F. Laurens, and E. Costes, Phenotyping progenies for complex architectural traits: a strategy for 1-year-old apple trees (Malus x domestica Borkh.), Tree Genetics & Genomes, vol.119, issue.3, pp.140-151, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s11295-006-0037-1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00830066

V. Segura, C. Denancé, C. Durel, and E. Costes, Wide range QTL analysis for complex architectural traits in a 1-year-old apple progeny, Genome, vol.50, pp.159-171, 2007.

V. Segura, C. Durel, and E. Costes, Dissecting apple tree architecture into genetic, ontogenetic and environmental effects: QTL mapping, Tree Genetics & Genomes, vol.166, issue.1, pp.165-179, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s11295-008-0181-x

L. Singh, Studies in Biennial Bearing: III. Growth Studies in ???ON??? and ???Off??? Year Trees, Journal of Horticultural Science, vol.24, issue.2, 1948.
DOI : 10.1080/00221589.1948.11513683

M. Smith, R. Shaw, J. Chapman, J. Owen-turner, S. Lee et al., Long-term performance of ???Ellendale??? mandarin on seven commercial rootstocks in sub-tropical Australia, Scientia Horticulturae, vol.102, issue.1, pp.75-89, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scienta.2003.12.004

B. Tabachnick and L. Fidell, Using multivariate statistics, 2007.

J. Van-ooiejn, MapQTL® 5, Software for the mapping of quantitative trait loci in experimental populations, 2004.

W. Venables and B. Ripley, Modern Applied Statistics with S. Fourth Edition, 2002.

G. Verbeke and G. Molenberghs, Linear Mixed Models for Longitudinal Data, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4612-2294-1_3

J. Wilcox, Some factors affecting apple yields in the Okanagan Valley: tree size, tree vigor, biennial bearing, and distance of planting, Scientific Agriculture, vol.25, p.189, 1944.