Abstract : There is a growing interest in applying mathematical theories and methods from topology, computational geometry, differential equations, fluid dynamics, quantum statistics, etc. to describe and to analyze scientific regularities of diverse, massive, complex, nonlinear, and fast changing data accumulated continuously around the world and in discovering and revealing valid, insightful, and valuable knowledge that data imply. With increasingly solid mathematical foundations, various methods and techniques have been studied and developed for data mining, modeling, and processing, and knowledge representation, organization, and verification; different systems and mechanisms have been designed to perform data-intensive tasks in many application fields for classification, predication, recommendation, ranking, filtering, etc. This special focus of Mathematics in Computer Science is organized to stimulate original research on the interaction of mathematics with data and knowledge, in particular the exploration of new mathematical theories and methodologies for data modeling and analysis and knowledge discovery and management, the study of mathematical models of big data and complex knowledge, and the development of novel solutions and strategies to enhance the performance of existing systems and mechanisms for data and knowledge processing. The present foreword provides a short review of some key ideas and techniques on how mathematics interacts with data and knowledge, together with a few selected research directions and problems and a brief introduction to the four papers published in the focus.