M. Armoni and J. Gal-ezer, Introducing non-determinism, Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, vol.25, pp.325-359, 2006.

R. Arnheim, Visual Thinking, 1969.

P. Arrighi and G. Dowek, Causal Graph Dynamics, Proceedings of the 39th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming, pp.54-66, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-31585-5_9

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00944459

A. F. Blackwell, Correction: a picture is worth 84.1 words, Proceedings of the First ESP Student Workshop, pp.15-22, 1997.

M. Blum and C. Hewitt, Automata on a two-dimensional tape, IEEE Conference Record of the 8th Annual Symposium on Switching and Automata Theory (SWAT), pp.155-160, 1967.

G. S. Boolos, J. P. Burgess, and R. C. Jeffrey, Computability and Logic, 2002.

A. Brongniart, G. Dowek, and N. Dershowitz, Simulation d'une machine de Turing 2D Available at http://inriamecsci.github.io, p.2, 2012.

S. A. Cook and R. A. Reckhow, Time bounded random access machines, Journal of Computer and System Sciences, vol.7, issue.4, pp.354-375, 1973.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-0000(73)80029-7

L. and D. Mol, Post's machine. Unpublished report, Center for Logic and Philosophy of Science, 2006.

N. Dershowitz, E. Kashefi, J. Krivine, and F. Van-raamsdonk, The Generic Model of Computation, Proceedings of the Seventh International Workshop on Developments in Computational Models (DCM 2011) Electronic Proceedings Theoretical Computer Science (EPTCS), pp.59-71, 2011.
DOI : 10.4204/EPTCS.88.5

N. Dershowitz and C. Kirchner, SPREADSPACES: Mathematically-Intelligent Graphical Spreadsheets, Concurrency, pp.194-208, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-540-68679-8_13

A. K. Dewdney, Computer Recreations, Scientific American, vol.261, issue.3, pp.180-183, 1989.
DOI : 10.1038/scientificamerican0989-180

M. Fowler, UML Distilled: A Brief Guide to the Standard Object Modeling Language, 2003.

M. Gardner, Mathematical Games, Mathematical Games, pp.120-123, 1970.
DOI : 10.1038/scientificamerican1070-120

L. Geurts and L. Meertens, Designing a beginners' programming language, New Directions in Algorithmic Languages, S. A. Schuman, pp.1-18, 1975.

H. H. Goldstine and J. Von-neumann, Planning and coding of problems for an electronic computing instrument: report on the mathematical and logical aspects of an electronic computing instrument, part II, volume 1?3. Institute for Advanced Study, pp.80-151, 1947.

B. Grad, The Creation and the Demise of VisiCalc, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.29, issue.3, pp.20-31, 2007.
DOI : 10.1109/MAHC.2007.4338439

Y. Gurevich, Evolving algebras 1993: Lipari guide, Specification and Validation Methods, E. Börger, pp.9-36, 1995.

N. Hamilton, The A?Z of programming languages: Python. Computerworld, 2008.

J. Hartmanis and R. E. Stearns, On the computational complexity of algorithms. Transactions of the, pp.285-306, 1965.

H. Hermes, Aufzählbarkeit, Entscheidbarkeit, Berechenbarkeit: Einführung in die Theorie der rekursiven Funktionen, Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften 109, 1961.

I. Hodkinson, Computability, Algorithms, and Complexity: Course 240, course notes, 2003.

C. D. Hundhausen and J. L. Brown, What You See Is What You Code: A ???live??? algorithm development and visualization environment for novice learners, Journal of Visual Languages & Computing, vol.18, issue.1, pp.22-47, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jvlc.2006.03.002

C. G. Langton, Studying artificial life with cellular automata, Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, vol.22, issue.1-3, pp.120-149, 1986.
DOI : 10.1016/0167-2789(86)90237-X

URL : http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/26022/1/0000093.pdf

X. Leroy, D. Doligez, A. Frisch, J. Garrigue, D. Rémy et al., The OCaml System Release 4.00: Documentation and User's Manual, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00930213

L. Marshall and J. Webber, Gotos considered harmful and other programmers' taboos, Proceedings of the 12th Workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group, pp.171-180, 2000.

N. H. Packard and S. Wolfram, Two-dimensional cellular automata, Journal of Statistical Physics, vol.51, issue.3, pp.901-946, 1985.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01010423

S. Papert, Mindstorms; Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas, Basic Books, 1980.

E. L. Post, Finite combinatory processes???formulation, Basic Papers on Undecidable Propositions, Unsolvable Problems and Computable Functions, pp.103-105, 1936.
DOI : 10.2307/2371045

R. Reichert, Theory of Computation as a Vehicle for Teaching Fundamental Concepts of Computer Science, Diss. No. 15035, 2003.

W. Reisig, A Primer in Petri Net Design, 1992.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-75329-9

M. Resnick, J. Maloney, A. Monroy-hernández, N. Rusk, E. Eastmond et al., Scratch, Communications of the ACM, vol.52, issue.11, pp.60-67, 2009.
DOI : 10.1145/1592761.1592779

D. Schmandt-besserat, The Envelopes That Bear the First Writing, Technology and Culture, vol.21, issue.3, pp.357-385, 1980.
DOI : 10.2307/3103153

A. Scott, M. Watkins, and D. Mcphee, A step back from coding ? an online environment and pedagogy for novice programmers The Higher Education Academy, Proceedings of the 11th Java in the Internet Curriculum Conference, pp.35-41, 2007.

C. E. Shannon and W. Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication, 1998.

J. C. Shepherdson, The Reduction of Two-Way Automata to One-Way Automata, IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol.3, issue.2, pp.198-200, 1959.
DOI : 10.1147/rd.32.0198

S. G. Smith and B. A. Sherwood, Educational uses of the PLATO computer system, Science, vol.192, issue.4237, pp.344-352, 1976.
DOI : 10.1126/science.769165

A. Stern and D. Weinberg, 2D Turing machine, 2013.

I. Stewart, The Ultimate in Anty-Particles, Scientific American, vol.271, issue.1, pp.104-107, 1994.
DOI : 10.1038/scientificamerican0794-104

A. M. Turing and M. Davis, On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem Corrections in 43, The Undecidable: Basic Papers on Undecidable Propositions, Unsolvable Problems and Computable Functions, pp.230-265, 1936.

A. M. Turing, Checking a large routine, Report of a Conference on High Speed Automatic Calculating Machines, pp.67-69, 1949.

V. A. Uspensky, Post's Machine, Little Mathematics Library), 1979.

H. Wang, A Variant to Turing's Theory of Computing Machines, Journal of the ACM, vol.4, issue.1, pp.63-92, 1957.
DOI : 10.1145/320856.320867

M. B. Wells, A review of two-dimensional programming languages, Proceedings of the Symposium on Two-Dimensional Man-Machine Communication, pp.1-10, 1972.
DOI : 10.1145/942576.807009

. Wikipedia, Visual Programming Language Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Visual_programming_language, 2013.

G. Williams and R. Moore, The Apple story, Part 1: early history Available at http://apple2history, Byte, vol.9, pp.68-69, 1984.

N. Zeldes, The Curator's Take on the Wonderful captcha Exhibition Available at http://www.nathanzeldes.com/wp-content/uploads, 2012.