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Hedging Algorithms and Repeated Matrix Games

Abstract : Playing repeated matrix games (RMG) while maximizing the cumulative returns is a basic method to evaluate multi-agent learning (MAL) algorithms. Previous work has shown that UCB, M3, S or Exp3 algorithms have good behaviors on average in RMG. Besides, hedging algorithms have been shown to be effective on prediction problems. An hedging algorithm is made up with a top-level algorithm and a set of basic algorithms. To make its decision, an hedging algorithm uses its top-level algorithm to choose a basic algorithm, and the chosen algorithm makes the decision. This paper experimentally shows that well-selected hedging algorithms are better on average than all previous MAL algorithms on the task of playing RMG against various players. S is a very good top-level algorithm, and UCB and M3 are very good basic algorithms. Furthermore, two-level hedging algorithms are more effective than one-level hedging algorithms, and three levels are not better than two levels.
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Contributor : Damien Pellier <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, April 9, 2014 - 1:29:22 PM
Last modification on : Friday, April 10, 2020 - 5:29:31 PM
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  • HAL Id : hal-00975943, version 1


Bruno Bouzy, Marc Métivier, Damien Pellier. Hedging Algorithms and Repeated Matrix Games. Workshop on Machine Learning and Data Mining in and around Games (ECML-PKDD), Sep 2011, Athens, Greece. ⟨hal-00975943⟩



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