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White Adipose Tissue Resilience to Insulin Deprivation and Replacement

Lilas Hadji 1 Emmanuelle Berger 2 Hédi Soula 1, 3 Hubert Vidal 1 Alain Geloen 1
3 BEAGLE - Artificial Evolution and Computational Biology
LIRIS - Laboratoire d'InfoRmatique en Image et Systèmes d'information, Inria Grenoble - Rhône-Alpes, LBBE - Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive - UMR 5558
Abstract : Introduction: Adipocyte size and body fat distribution are strongly linked to the metabolic complications of obesity. The aim of the present study was to test the plasticity of white adipose tissue in response to insulin deprivation and replacement. We have characterized the changes of adipose cell size repartition and gene expressions in type 1 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rats and type 1 diabetic supplemented with insulin. Methods: Using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, we induced rapid changes in rat adipose tissue weights to study the changes in the distribution of adipose cell sizes in retroperitoneal (rWAT), epididymal (eWAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissues (scWAT). Adipose tissue weights of type 1 diabetic rats were then rapidly restored by insulin supplementation. Cell size distributions were analyzed using multisizer IV (Beckman Coulter). Cell size changes were correlated to transcriptional regulation of genes coding for proteins involved in lipid and glucose metabolisms and adipocytokines. Results: The initial body weight of the rats was 46565.2 g. Insulin privation was stopped when rats lost 100 g which induced reductions in fat mass of 68% for rWAT, 42% for eWAT and 59% for scWAT corresponding to decreased mode cell diameters by 31.1%, 20%, 25.3%, respectively. The most affected size distribution by insulin deprivation was observed in rWAT. The bimodal distribution of adipose cell sizes disappeared in response to insulin deprivation in rWAT and scWAT. The most important observation is that cell size distribution returned close to control values in response to insulin treatment. mRNAs coding for adiponectin, leptin and apelin were more stimulated in scWAT compared to other depots in diabetic plus insulin group. Conclusion: Fat depots have specific responses to insulin deprivation and supplementation. The results show that insulin is a major determinant of bimodal cell repartition in adipose tissues.
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Lilas Hadji, Emmanuelle Berger, Hédi Soula, Hubert Vidal, Alain Geloen. White Adipose Tissue Resilience to Insulin Deprivation and Replacement. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2014, 9 (8), pp.10. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0106214⟩. ⟨hal-01092531⟩

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