B. Adhikary, S. Kulkarni, A. Dallura, Y. Tang, T. Chai et al., A regional scale chemical transport modeling of Asian aerosols with data assimilation of AOD observations using optimal interpolation technique, Atmospheric Environment, vol.42, issue.37, pp.8600-8615, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.08.031

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar, Applied Optics, vol.31, issue.33, pp.7113-7131, 1992.
DOI : 10.1364/AO.31.007113

J. Austin, Toward the four dimensional assimilation of stratospheric chemical constituents, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.92, issue.41, pp.2569-2588, 1992.
DOI : 10.1029/91JD02603

H. Baars, A. Ansmann, R. Engelmann, and D. And-althausen, Continuous monitoring of the boundary-layer top with lidar, Atmos . Chem. Phys, vol.85194, pp.7281-729610, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00304231

R. Balgovind, A. Dalcher, M. Ghil, and E. Kalnay, A Stochastic-Dynamic Model for the Spatial Structure of Forecast Error Statistics, Monthly Weather Review, vol.111, issue.4, pp.701-722, 1983.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1983)111<0701:ASDMFT>2.0.CO;2

A. Benedetti, M. Fisher, and Q. J. Roy, Background error statistics for aerosols, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.32, issue.623, pp.391-405, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.37

A. Benedetti, J. Morcrette, O. Boucher, A. Dethof, R. J. Engelen et al., Aerosol analysis and forecast in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Integrated Forecast System: 2. Data assimilation, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.113, issue.D13, pp.1-18, 2009.
DOI : 10.1029/2008JD011115

M. Bocquet and P. Sakov, Joint state and parameter estimation with an iterative ensemble Kalman smoother, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, vol.20, issue.5, pp.803-818, 2013.
DOI : 10.5194/npg-20-803-2013

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00877943

M. Bocquet and P. Sakov, An iterative ensemble Kalman smoother, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.134, issue.682, pp.1521-1535, 2014.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.2236

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00918488

J. W. Boylan and A. G. Russell, PM and light extinction model performance metrics, goals, and criteria for three-dimensional air quality models, Atmospheric Environment, vol.40, issue.26, pp.4946-4959, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.09.087

J. R. Campbell, J. S. Reid, D. L. Westphal, J. Zhang, E. J. Hyer et al., CALIOP Aerosol Subset Processing for Global Aerosol Transport Model Data Assimilation, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, vol.3, issue.2, pp.203-21410, 2010.
DOI : 10.1109/JSTARS.2010.2044868

G. Candiani, C. Carnevale, G. Finzi, E. Pisoni, and M. Volta, A comparison of reanalysis techniques: Applying optimal interpolation and Ensemble Kalman Filtering to improve air quality monitoring at mesoscale, Science of The Total Environment, vol.458, issue.460, pp.7-14, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.03.089

P. Chazette, H. Randriamiarisoa, J. Sanak, P. Couvert, and C. Flamant, Optical properties of urban aerosol from airborne and ground-based in situ measurements performed during the Etude et Simulation de la Qualit?? de l'air en Ile de France (ESQUIF) program, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.12, issue.D17, pp.1-2010, 2005.
DOI : 10.1029/2004JD004810

W. D. Collins, P. J. Rasch, B. E. Eaton, B. V. Khattatov, J. Lamarque et al., Simulating aerosols using a chemical transport model with assimilation of satellite aerosol retrievals: Methodology for INDOEX, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.84, issue.D7, pp.7313-733610, 2001.
DOI : 10.1029/2000JD900507

R. Daley, Atmospheric data analysis, La M??t??orologie, vol.8, issue.9, 1991.
DOI : 10.4267/2042/51948

D. 'amico, G. Binietoglou, I. Amodeo, A. Pappalardo, G. Baars et al., EARLINET single calculus chain for automatic lidar data processing: first tests on optical products, in: 26th International Laser Radar Conference, pp.331-334, 2012.

J. P. Dawson, P. J. Adams, and S. N. Pandis, Sensitivity of PM<sub>2.5</sub> to climate in the Eastern US: a modeling case study, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.7, issue.16, pp.4295-430910, 2007.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-7-4295-2007

A. De-meij, M. Krol, F. Dentener, E. Vignati, C. Cuvelier et al., The sensitivity of aerosol in Europe to two different emission inventories and temporal distribution of emissions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.65194, pp.4287-430910, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00296034

E. Debry, K. Fahey, K. Sartelet, B. Sportisse, and M. Tombette, Technical Note: A new SIze REsolved Aerosol Model (SIREAM), Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.75194, pp.1537-154710, 1537.
DOI : 10.5194/acpd-6-11845-2006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328488

B. Denby, M. Schaap, A. Segers, P. Builtjes, and J. Hora, Comparison of two data assimilation methods for assessing PM10 exceedances on the European scale, Atmospheric Environment, vol.42, issue.30, pp.7122-7134, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.05.058

D. Dockery and A. Pope, Epidemiology of acute health effects: summary of time-series, in: Particles in Our Air: Concentration and Health Effects, pp.123-147, 1996.

R. R. Draxler and G. D. Rolph, HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model access via NOAA ARL READY Website, NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, p.19, 2014.

H. Elbern and H. Schmidt, A four-dimensional variational chemistry data assimilation scheme for Eulerian chemistry transport modeling, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.113, issue.D15, pp.18583-18598, 1999.
DOI : 10.1029/1999JD900280

L. K. Emmons, S. Walters, P. G. Hess, J. Lamarque, G. G. Pfister et al., Description and evaluation of the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, Geosci. Model Dev, pp.43-6710, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00452711

G. Evensen, Data Assimilation: the Ensemble Kalman Filter, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-03711-5

M. Fisher and D. J. Lary, Lagrangian four-dimensional variational data assimilation of chemical species, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.113, issue.20, pp.1681-1704, 1995.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49712152709

M. J. Granados-muñoz, F. Navas-guzmán, J. A. Bravo-aranda, J. L. Guerrero-rascado, H. Lyamani et al., Automatic determination of the planetary boundary layer height using lidar: One-year analysis over southeastern Spain, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.111, issue.7, p.1820810, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/2005JD006593

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider et al., Characterization of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the Mediterranean basin, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.100, issue.suppl. 1, pp.22257-2227010, 1999.
DOI : 10.1029/1999JD900257

A. Hodzic, R. Vautard, P. Chazette, L. Menut, and B. Bessagnet, Aerosol chemical and optical properties over the Paris area within ESQUIF project, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.6, issue.11, pp.3257-328010, 2006.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-6-3257-2006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328454

N. Huneeus and O. Boucher, One-dimensional variational retrieval of aerosol extinction coefficient from synthetic LIDAR and radiometric measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.6, issue.D22, pp.1-1410, 2007.
DOI : 10.1029/2006JD007625

N. Huneeus, F. Chevallier, and O. Boucher, Estimating aerosol emissions by assimilating observed aerosol optical depth in a global aerosol model Intergovernment Panel on Climate Control (IPCC): The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Tech. rep, vol.125194, issue.10, pp.4585-4606, 2012.

Z. Jiang, Z. Liu, T. Wang, C. S. Schwartz, H. Lin et al., observations over China using process analysis, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.44, issue.29, pp.6738-6749, 2013.
DOI : 10.1029/2009JD011900

M. Kahnert, On the observability of chemical and physical aerosol properties by optical observations: Inverse modelling with variational data assimilation, Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, vol.104, issue.4, pp.747-755, 2009.
DOI : 10.1080/02786820500182289

E. Kalnay, Atmospheric Modeling, Data Assimilation, and Predictability, 2003.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511802270

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.88.5725

Y. Kim, F. Couvidat, K. Sartelet, and C. Seigneur, Comparison of Different Gas-Phase Mechanisms and Aerosol Modules for Simulating Particulate Matter Formation, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, vol.61, issue.11, pp.1218-1226, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s10874-010-9168-8

J. D. Klett, Lidar inversion with variable backscatter/extinction ratios, Applied Optics, vol.24, issue.11, pp.1638-1643, 1985.
DOI : 10.1364/AO.24.001638

W. Lahoz, B. Khattatov, and R. E. Ménard, Data assimilation: making sense of Earth Observation, Frontiers in Environmental Science, vol.64, 2010.
DOI : 10.1002/fld.2153

R. Lauwerys, V. Haufroid, P. Hoet, and D. Lison, Toxicologie industrielle et intoxications professionnelles, 2007.

L. Dimet, F. Talagrand, and O. , Variational algorithms for analysis and assimilation of meteorological observations: theoretical aspects, Tellus A, vol.109, issue.2, pp.97-110, 1986.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1600-0870.1986.tb00459.x

D. Lesouëf, F. Gheusi, P. Chazette, R. Delmas, and J. Sanak, Low Tropospheric Layers Over Reunion Island in Lidar-Derived Observations and a High-Resolution Model, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol.45, issue.5, pp.1573-147210, 2013.
DOI : 10.1007/s10546-013-9851-9

Z. Li, Z. Zang, Q. B. Li, Y. Chao, D. Chen et al., A three-dimensional variational data assimilation system for multiple aerosol species with WRF/Chem and an application to PM 2.5 prediction, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.135194, pp.4265-427810, 2013.

C. Lin, Z. Wang, and J. Zhu, An Ensemble Kalman Filter for severe dust storm data assimilation over China, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.8, issue.11, pp.2975-2983, 2008.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-8-2975-2008

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00296571

Z. Liu, Q. Liu, H. Lin, C. S. Schwartz, Y. Lee et al., Three-dimensional variational assimilation of MODIS aerosol optical depth: Implementation and application to a dust storm over East Asia, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.9, issue.11, pp.1-1910, 2011.
DOI : 10.1029/2011JD016159

A. J. Lorenc and . Roy, Analysis methods for numerical weather prediction, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.108, issue.474, pp.1177-1194, 1986.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.49711247414

V. Mallet, D. Quélo, B. Sportisse, M. Ahmed-de-biasi, É. Debry et al., Technical Note: The air quality modeling system Polyphemus, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.75194, pp.5479-548710, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328547

R. Ménard, S. E. Cohn, L. Chang, and P. M. Lyster, Assimilation of Stratospheric Chemical Tracer Observations Using a Kalman Filter. Part I: Formulation, Monthly Weather Review, vol.128, issue.8, pp.2654-2671, 1999.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<2654:AOSCTO>2.0.CO;2

E. C. Monahan, D. E. Spiel, D. , K. L. Monahan, E. C. et al., A Model of Marine Aerosol Generation Via Whitecaps and Wave Disruption, pp.167-174, 1986.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-009-4668-2_16

Y. Morille, M. Haeffelin, P. Drobinski, and J. And-pelon, STRAT: An Automated Algorithm to Retrieve the Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere from Single-Channel Lidar Data, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, vol.24, issue.5, pp.761-77510, 2007.
DOI : 10.1175/JTECH2008.1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00147430

C. Moulin, C. E. Lambert, U. Dayan, V. Masson, M. Ramonet et al., Satellite climatology of African dust transport in the Mediterranean atmosphere, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.380, issue.11, pp.13137-131441098, 1029.
DOI : 10.1029/98JD00171

P. Nabat, S. Somot, M. Mallet, I. Chiapello, J. J. Morcrette et al., ) of the monthly tropospheric aerosol optical depth distribution over the Mediterranean region from a comparative evaluation and blending of remote sensing and model products, Atmos. Meas. Tech, vol.65194, pp.1287-131410, 1287.

S. L. Napelenok, D. S. Cohan, Y. Hu, R. , and A. G. , Decoupled direct 3D sensitivity analysis for particulate matter (DDM-3D/PM), Atmospheric Environment, vol.40, issue.32, pp.6112-6121, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.05.039

J. Nicolas, Caractérisation physico-chimique de l'aérosol troposphérique en Méditerranée: sources et devenir, 2013.

T. Niu, S. L. Gong, G. F. Zhu, H. L. Liu, X. Q. Hu et al., Data assimilation of dust aerosol observations for the CUACE/dust forecasting system, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.85194, pp.3473-348210, 2008.

M. Pagowski and G. A. Grell, Experiments with the assimilation of fine aerosols using an ensemble Kalman filter, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.60, issue.D7, pp.1-1510, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.02.041

M. Pagowski, G. A. Grell, S. A. Mckeen, S. E. Peckham, D. J. Devenyi et al., Three-dimensional variational data assimilation of ozone and fine particulate matter observations: some results using the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry model and Grid-point Statistical Interpolation, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol.38, issue.S2, pp.2013-2024, 2010.
DOI : 10.1002/qj.700

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, A. Apituley, A. Comeron, V. Freudenthaler et al., EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network, Atmos. Meas. Tech, vol.75194, pp.2389-240910, 2014.
DOI : 10.5194/amt-7-2389-2014

URL : http://doi.org/10.5194/amt-7-2389-2014

R. A. Pielke and M. Uliasz, Use of meteorological models as input to regional and mesoscale air quality models ??? limitations and strengths, Atmospheric Environment, vol.32, issue.8, pp.1455-1466, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00140-4

J. Putaud, R. V. Dingenen, A. Alastuey, H. Bauer, W. Birmili et al., A European aerosol phenomenology ??? 3: Physical and chemical characteristics of particulate matter from 60 rural, urban, and kerbside sites across Europe, and Mégie, G.: Relative humidity impact on aerosol parameters in a Paris suburban area, pp.1308-1320, 1389.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.12.011

G. D. Rolph, Real-time Environmental Applications and Display sYstem (READY) Website (http://ready.arl.noaa.gov), NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, 2014.

Y. Roustan and M. Bocquet, Inverse modelling for mercury over Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.65194, issue.10, pp.3085-3098, 2006.
DOI : 10.5194/acpd-6-795-2006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328452

Y. Roustan, K. Sartelet, M. Tombette, E. Debry, and B. Sportisse, Simulation of aerosols and gas-phase species over Europe with the Polyphemus system. Part II: Model sensitivity analysis for 2001, Atmospheric Environment, vol.44, issue.34, pp.4219-4229, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.07.005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00589251

K. N. Sartelet, E. Debry, K. M. Fahey, Y. Roustan, M. Tombette et al., Simulation of aerosols and gas-phase species over Europe with the Polyphemus system, Part I: model-to-data comparison for, Atmos. Environ, vol.29, pp.6116-6131, 2001.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inria-00633774

K. N. Sartelet, F. Couvidat, C. Seigneur, and Y. And-roustan, Impact of biogenic emissions on air quality over Europe and North America, Atmospheric Environment, vol.53, pp.131-141, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.10.046

N. A. Schutgens, T. Miyoshi, T. Takemura, and T. Nakajima, Applying an ensemble Kalman filter to the assimilation of AERONET observations in a global aerosol transport model, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.105194, pp.2561-257610, 2010.

N. A. Schutgens, T. Miyoshi, T. Takemura, and T. Nakajima, Sensitivity tests for an ensemble Kalman filter for aerosol assimilation, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.105194, pp.6583-660010, 2010.

C. S. Schwartz, Z. Liu, H. Lin, and S. A. Mckeen, Simultaneous three-dimensional variational assimilation of surface fine particulate matter and MODIS aerosol optical depth, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.34, issue.D3, pp.1-2210, 2012.
DOI : 10.1029/2007GL029979

T. T. Sekiyama, T. Y. Tanaka, A. Shimizu, and T. Miyoshi, Data assimilation of CALIPSO aerosol observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.105194, pp.39-4910, 2010.

D. Simpson, H. Fagerli, J. E. Jonson, S. Tsyro, P. Wind et al., Transboundary acidification, euthrophication and ground level ozone in Europe, Part I: unified EMEP model description, 2003.

N. Sugimoto and I. Uno, Observation of Asian dust and airpollution aerosols using a network of ground-based lidars (AD- Net): realtime data processing for validation/assimilation of chemical transport models, pp.10-1088, 2009.

O. Talagrand, Assimilation of observations, an introduction, J. Meteorol . Soc. Jpn, vol.75, pp.191-209, 1997.

F. Thieuleux, C. Moulin, F. M. Bréon, F. Maignan, J. Poitou et al., Remote sensing of aerosols over the oceans using MSG/SEVIRI imagery, Annales Geophysicae, vol.23, issue.12, pp.3561-356810, 2005.
DOI : 10.5194/angeo-23-3561-2005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00330068

M. Tombette, V. Mallet, and B. Sportisse, PM<sub>10</sub> data assimilation over Europe with the optimal interpolation method, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.9, issue.1, pp.57-70, 2009.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-9-57-2009

T. Viskari, E. Asmi, P. Kolmonen, H. Vuollekoski, T. Petäjä et al., Estimation of aerosol particle number distributions with Kalman Filtering ??? Part 1: Theory, general aspects and statistical validity, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.12, issue.24, pp.11767-1177910, 2012.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-12-11767-2012

H. Wang and T. Niu, Sensitivity studies of aerosol data assimilation and direct radiative feedbacks in modeling dust aerosols, Atmospheric Environment, vol.64, pp.208-218, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.09.066

K. C. Wang, R. E. Dickinson, and S. L. Liang, Clear Sky Visibility Has Decreased over Land Globally from 1973 to 2007, Science, vol.323, issue.5920, pp.1468-1470, 1973.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1167549

Y. Wang, K. N. Sartelet, M. Bocquet, C. , and P. , Assimilation of ground versus lidar observations for PM 10 forecasting, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.135194, pp.269-28310, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00783554

Y. Wang, K. N. Sartelet, M. Bocquet, C. , and P. , Modelling and assimilation of lidar signals over Greater Paris during the MEGAPOLI summer campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.145194, pp.3511-353210, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01066822

L. Wu, V. Mallet, M. Bocquet, and B. Sportisse, A comparison study of data assimilation algorithms for ozone forecasts, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.3, issue.D24, pp.1-1710, 2008.
DOI : 10.1029/2008JD009991

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inria-00582376

G. Yarwood, S. Rao, M. Yocke, and G. Whitten, Updates to the Carbon Bond Chemical Mechanism: CB05 Final Report to the US EPA, RT-0400675, p.17, 2005.

J. Zhang, J. R. Campbell, J. S. Reid, D. L. Westphal, N. L. Baker et al., Evaluating the impact of assimilating CALIOP-derived aerosol extinction profiles on a global mass transport model, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.113, issue.D19, pp.10-1029, 2011.
DOI : 10.1029/2011GL047737

M. Zupanski, Maximum Likelihood Ensemble Filter: Theoretical Aspects, Monthly Weather Review, vol.133, issue.6, pp.1710-1726, 2005.
DOI : 10.1175/MWR2946.1