Biomarqueurs IRM de la maladie d’Alzheimer : apport du traitement des images

Olivier Colliot 1
1 ARAMIS - Algorithms, models and methods for images and signals of the human brain
Inria Paris-Rocquencourt, UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, ICM - Institut du Cerveau et de la Moëlle Epinière = Brain and Spine Institute
Abstract : In the past years, considerable progress has been made in image processing methods applied to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), that allow detecting and quantifying anatomical and functional alterations at the earliest stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These progresses pave the way to the definition of new biomarkers that could contribute to an earlier and more accurate diagnosis, to predict the evolution of the disease and to quantify the effect of new treatments. This paper summarizes recent advances in the domain of image processing for the definition of biomarkers of AD. Hippocampal atrophy is a robust biomarker and has been recently included in the new diagnostic criteria for research. Automatic segmentation methods have made it feasible to perform volumetry in large series of patients. Different methods, which can be applied to standard anatomical MRI, allow obtaining local measures of atrophy distributed throughout the whole brain. Automatic classification methods provide indices at the individual level. Diffusion MRI provides information of the integrity of brain microstructure and of white matter tracts. Resting-state functional MRI allows studying alterations of functional connectivity. Finally, high-field MRI opens new avenues to study very subtle anatomical alterations. Validation of these biomarkers is a crucial issue that requires large-scale multicenter studies. This requires addressing several scientific and technological challenges.
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Olivier Colliot. Biomarqueurs IRM de la maladie d’Alzheimer : apport du traitement des images. Tillement Jean-Paul; Hauw Jean-Jacques; Papadopoulos Vassilios. Vieillissement et démences : un défi médical, scientifique et socio-économique, Lavoisier, pp.25-37, 2014, Rapports de l’Académie Nationale de Médecine. ⟨hal-01098841⟩

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