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Journal Articles Data and Knowledge Engineering Year : 2014

SQUALL: The expressiveness of SPARQL 1.1 made available as a controlled natural language

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Abstract

The Semantic Web (SW) is now made of billions of triples, which are available as Linked Open Data (LOD) or as RDF stores. The SPARQL query language provides a very expressive way to search and explore this wealth of semantic data. However, user-friendly interfaces are needed to bridge the gap between end-users and SW formalisms. Navigation-based interfaces and natural language interfaces require no or little training, but they cover a small fragment of SPARQL's expressivity. We propose SQUALL, a query and update language that provides the full expressiveness of SPARQL 1.1 through a flexible controlled natural language (e.g., solution modifiers through superlatives, re-lational algebra through coordinations, filters through comparatives). A comprehensive and modular definition is given as a Montague grammar, and an evaluation of natural-ness is done on the QALD challenge. SQUALL is conceived as a component of natural language interfaces, to be combined with lexicons, guided input, and contextual dis-ambiguation. It is available as a Web service that translates SQUALL sentences to SPARQL, and submits them to SPARQL endpoints (e.g., DBpedia), therefore ensuring SW compliance, and leveraging the efficiency of SPARQL engines.
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Dates and versions

hal-01100300 , version 1 (06-01-2015)

Licence

Attribution - NonCommercial - ShareAlike - CC BY 4.0

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Sébastien Ferré. SQUALL: The expressiveness of SPARQL 1.1 made available as a controlled natural language. Data and Knowledge Engineering, 2014, 94, pp.163 - 188. ⟨10.1016/j.datak.2014.07.010⟩. ⟨hal-01100300⟩
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