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The ZX Calculus is incomplete for Clifford+T quantum mechanics

Abstract : The ZX calculus is a diagrammatic language for quantum mechanics and quantum information processing. We prove that the ZX-calculus is not complete for Clifford+T quantum mechanics. The completeness for this fragment has been stated as one of the main current open problems in categorical quantum mechanics. The ZX calculus was known to be incomplete for quantum mechanics, on the other hand, it has been proved complete for Clifford quantum mechanics (a.k.a. stabilizer quantum mechanics), and for single-qubit Clifford+T quantum mechanics. The question of the completeness of the ZX calculus for Clifford+T quantum mechanics is a crucial step in the development of the ZX calculus because of its (approximate) universality for quantum mechanics (i.e. any unitary evolution can be approximated using Clifford and T gates only). We exhibit a property which is know to be true in Clifford+T quantum mechanics and prove that this equation cannot be derived in the ZX calculus by introducing a new sound interpretation of the ZX calculus in which this particular property does not hold. Finally, we propose to extend the language with a new axiom.
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Contributor : Simon Perdrix <>
Submitted on : Thursday, December 31, 2015 - 10:42:04 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, December 18, 2018 - 4:48:02 PM

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  • HAL Id : hal-01249274, version 1
  • ARXIV : 1506.03055



Simon Perdrix, Quanlong Wang. The ZX Calculus is incomplete for Clifford+T quantum mechanics. Quantum Theory: from foundations to technologies – QTFT, Jun 2015, Vaxjo, Sweden. ⟨hal-01249274⟩



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