is the complete join of the two (q, q ? 4)-graphs G 1 and G 2 Note that since G has no universal vertex, the graphs G 1 and G 2 have n 1 ? 2 and n 2 ? 2 vertices, respectively. In such case, since every vertex of G 1 , resp. of G 2 , is adjacent to every vertex of G 2 , resp. of G 1 , two vertices on each side are enough in order to generate G, cc (G) ? 4. Therefore, we are left to characterize when in cc (G) = 3. We will prove the following claim ,

|S ? V (G i )| ? 2 for some i ? {1, 2}. W.l.o.g., let us assume that S has at least two vertices in G 1 . Furthermore, since S is a generator for G, every vertex of V (G) \ S has at least two neighbors in S ,

Since |S ? V (G 2 )| = 1, each vertex of G 1 \ S must have at least one neighbor in S ? V (G 1 ) to be generated (otherwise it would have a unique neighbor in S) ,

= 3 and S is not connected. Since S must have at least one connected component with at least 2 vertices, let x and y be two adjacent vertices of S and let {z} = S \ {x, y}. Let w ? V (G 1 ) \ S. The only way that w is generated is that x and y are neighbors of w. Hence ,

Indeed, since G is a thick spider, |K| = |S| ? 3, and we pick any three vertices in K in order to form the subset X that we will prove to be a generator for G. In order to prove it, since X induces a triangle, it is sufficient to prove that every vertex of G \ X has at least two adjacent neighbors in X. First, since X ? K and K is a clique, the latter holds for every vertex of K \ X. Furthermore, since there is a complete join between K and R, it also holds for every vertex of R. Finally, since every vertex of S has |K| ? 1 neighbors in K, there is at most one vertex in X that is nonadjacent to a given vertex in S, and so, since |X| ? 3, every vertex of S has at least two neighbors in X. Consequently, X is a generator for G ,

Neighborhood Diversity This section is devoted to the design of an FPT algorithm for computing in cc parameterized by the neighborhood diversity Two distinct vertices u and v are twins if N (u) \ v = N (v) \ u. The neighborhood diversity of a graph is k, if its vertex set can be partitioned into k sets P 1 , . . . , P k such that, for every , k}, any pair of vertices u, v ? P i are twins. This parameter was proposed in [Lam12], motivated by the fact that a graph of bounded vertex cover also has bounded neighborhood diversity, and therefore the later parameter can be used to obtain more general results ,

First, we claim that S is a generator for If x ? S then we are done. Otherwise, recall that every vertex x / ? S is the unique vertex of a cycle C that is not in S. In particular, by taking the smallest such cycle we can assume w.l.o.g. C to be induced. In this situation, C contains no more than two vertices of P since they are pairwise twins. Furthermore, for any P ? P of size, )|, the subset V (C \ P ) ? P induces a cycle C (again ,

Moreover since the vertices of P are pairwise twins, for any P * ? P of size |P * | = |P | there is an automorphism of G mapping P to ,

Suppose for sake of contradiction that Furthermore, since V \ S is generated by S , there exists a cycle C such that v is the only vertex of C not in S . However, for every v ? (P ? S) \ S , since v and v are twins it implies that there is a cycle C with vertex-set V (C \ v) ? {v }, and so, v is also generated by ,

By Lemma 37, for every 1 ? i ? k there are at most four possibilities for |P i ?S|: either |P i ?S| ? 2 (three possibilities) or P i ? S.. Overall, there are 4 k possibilities for the sequence |S ? P 1 |, |S ? P 2 |, . . . , |S ? P k |, and since by Lemma 37 the p i = |P i ? S| vertices of P i ? S can be chosen arbitrarily, a minimum-size generator S for G can be computed by exhaustive search over 4 k subsets if a partition into P i , 1 ? i ? k is given ,

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