J. E. Relly and M. Sabharwal, Perceptions of transparency of government policymaking: A cross-national study, Government Information Quarterly, vol.26, issue.1, pp.148-157, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.giq.2008.04.002

J. Brito, Hack, Mash & Peer: Crowdsourcing Government Transparency, SSRN Electronic Journal, vol.9, pp.119-157, 2008.
DOI : 10.2139/ssrn.1023485

J. C. Bertot, P. T. Jaeger, and J. M. Grimes, Using ICTs to create a culture of transparency: E-government and social media as openness and anti-corruption tools for societies, Government Information Quarterly, vol.27, issue.3, pp.264-271, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.giq.2010.03.001

K. Janssen, The influence of the PSI directive on open government data: An overview of recent developments, Government Information Quarterly, vol.28, issue.4, pp.446-456, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.giq.2011.01.004

T. Jetzek, M. Avital, and N. Bjørn-andersen, The Value of Open Government Data: A Strategic Analysis Framework, 2012.

D. Linders, From e-government to we-government: Defining a typology for citizen coproduction in the age of social media, Government Information Quarterly, vol.29, issue.4, pp.446-454, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.giq.2012.06.003

D. Osimo, K. Szkuta, R. Pizzicannella, L. Pujol, T. Zijstra et al., Study on collaborative production in e-government, pp.2010-0075, 2012.

K. J. Boudreau and K. R. Lakhani, How to manage outside innovation, Image, 2012.

K. R. Lakhani and R. G. Wolf, Why hackers do what they do: Understanding motivation and effort in free/open source software projects.Perspectives on free and open source software, pp.3-22, 2005.

S. K. Shah, Motivation, Governance, and the Viability of Hybrid Forms in Open Source Software Development, Management Science, vol.52, issue.7, pp.1000-1014, 2006.
DOI : 10.1287/mnsc.1060.0553

A. C. Bullinger and K. Moeslein, Innovation Contests -Where are we, AMCIS 2010 Proceedings. Paper 28, 2010.

A. Hjalmarsson, R. , and D. , Designing Digital Innovation Contests, Design Science Research in Information Systems. Advances in Theory and Practice, pp.9-27, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-29863-9_2

A. Hjalmarsson, P. Johannesson, G. Juell-skielse, and D. Rudmark, Beyond innovation contests: A framework of barriers to open innovation of digital services, 2014.

C. H. Levine and G. Fisher, Citizenship and Service Delivery: The Promise of Coproduction, Public Administration Review, vol.44, pp.178-189, 1984.
DOI : 10.2307/975559

E. Ostrom, Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action, 1990.

A. Booz and H. , New products management for the 1980s, 1982.

S. J. Kline and N. Rosenberg, An overview of innovation. The positive sum strategy: Harnessing technology for economic growth, p.640, 1986.

S. J. Kline, Innovation is not a linear process, Research management, vol.28, issue.4, pp.36-45, 1985.

R. Rothwell, Successful industrial innovation: critical factors for the 1990s, R&D Management, vol.3, issue.2, pp.221-240, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0166-4972(89)90022-9

H. W. Chesbrough, Open innovation: The new imperative for creating and profiting from technology, 2003.

A. Hochstein, R. Zarnekow, and W. Brenner, ITIL as Common Practice Reference Model for IT Service Management: Formal Assessment and Implications for Practice, 2005 IEEE International Conference on e-Technology, e-Commerce and e-Service, pp.704-710, 2005.
DOI : 10.1109/EEE.2005.86

A. Ghazawneh and O. Henfridsson, Balancing platform control and external contribution in third-party development: the boundary resources model, Information Systems Journal, vol.119, issue.2, 2012.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2575.2012.00406.x

M. Ceccagnoli, C. Forman, P. Huang, and D. J. Wu, Cocreation of Value in a Platform Ecosystem: The Case of Enterprise Software, MIS Quarterly, vol.36, issue.1, pp.263-290, 2012.

K. J. Boudreau and L. B. Jeppesen, Unpaid Complementors and Platform Network Effects? Evidence from On-Line Multi-Player Games. SSRN eLibrary. Retrieved from http, 2011.

K. J. Boudreau and K. R. Lakhani, How to manage outside innovation, MIT Sloan Management Review, vol.50, issue.4, pp.69-75, 2009.

Y. Qiu, A. Gopal, and I. Hann, Synthesizing Professional and Market Logics: A Study of Independent iOS App Entrepreneurs, 2011.

B. Bergvall-kåreborn, M. Bjorn, and D. Chincholle, Motivational profiles of toolkit users – iPhone and Android developers, International Journal of Technology Marketing, vol.6, issue.1, pp.36-56, 2011.
DOI : 10.1504/IJTMKT.2011.041942

B. Bergvall-kåreborn and D. Howcroft, Mobile Applications Development on Apple and Google Platforms, Communications of the Association for Information Systems, vol.29, issue.1, p.30, 2011.

D. Rudmark, E. Arnestrand, and M. Avital, Crowdpushing: The Flipside of Crowdsourcing, ECIS 2012 Proceedings, 2012.

D. Rudmark, The Practices of Unpaid Third-Party Developers ? Implications for API Design, AMCIS 2013 Proceedings, 2013.

D. Rudmark, The Practices of Unpaid Third-Party Developers ? Implications for API Design, AMCIS 2013 Proceedings. Retrieved from http, 2013.

F. T. Piller and D. Walcher, Toolkits for idea competitions: a novel method to integrate users in new product development, R and D Management, vol.24, issue.4, pp.307-318, 2006.
DOI : 10.1287/mnsc.48.7.821.2817

J. Füller, M. Bartl, H. Ernst, and H. Mühlbacher, Community based innovation: How to integrate members of virtual communities into new product development, Electronic Commerce Research, vol.Summer, issue.4, pp.57-73, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s10660-006-5988-7

J. C. Nunally and I. H. Bernstein, Psychonometric theory, 1994.