Unimodal Versus Bimodal EEG-fMRI Neurofeedback of a Motor Imagery Task

Lorraine Perronnet 1, 2 Anatole Lécuyer 2 Marsel Mano 2, 1 Elise Bannier 3, 1 Fabien Lotte 4, 5 Maureen Clerc 6, 7 Christian Barillot 1
1 VisAGeS - Vision, Action et Gestion d'informations en Santé
INSERM - Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale : U1228, Inria Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique , IRISA_D5 - SIGNAUX ET IMAGES NUMÉRIQUES, ROBOTIQUE
2 Hybrid - 3D interaction with virtual environments using body and mind
Inria Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique , IRISA_D6 - MEDIA ET INTERACTIONS
5 Potioc - Popular interaction with 3d content
LaBRI - Laboratoire Bordelais de Recherche en Informatique, Inria Bordeaux - Sud-Ouest
6 ATHENA - Computational Imaging of the Central Nervous System
CRISAM - Inria Sophia Antipolis - Méditerranée
Abstract : Neurofeedback is a promising tool for brain rehabilitation and peak performance training. Neurofeedback approaches usually rely on a single brain imaging modality such as EEG or fMRI. Combining these modalities for neurofeedback training could allow to provide richer information to the subject and could thus enable him/her to achieve faster and more specific self-regulation. Yet unimodal and multimodal neurofeedback have never been compared before. In the present work, we introduce a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experimental protocol in which participants performed a motor-imagery task in unimodal and bimodal NF conditions. With this protocol we were able to compare for the first time the effects of unimodal EEG-neurofeedback and fMRI-neurofeedback versus bimodal EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback by looking both at EEG and fMRI activations. We also propose a new feedback metaphor for bimodal EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback that integrates both EEG and fMRI signal in a single bi-dimensional feedback (a ball moving in 2D). Such a feedback is intended to relieve the cognitive load of the subject by presenting the bimodal neurofeedback task as a single regulation task instead of two. Additionally, this integrated feedback metaphor gives flexibility on defining a bimodal neurofeedback target. Participants were able to regulate activity in their motor regions in all NF conditions. Moreover, motor activations as revealed by offline fMRI analysis were stronger during EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback than during EEG-neurofeedback. This result suggests that EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback could be more specific or more engaging than EEG-neurofeedback. Our results also suggest that during EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback, participants tended to regulate more the modality that was harder to control. Taken together our results shed first light on the specific mechanisms of bimodal EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback and on its added-value as compared to unimodal EEG-neurofeedback and fMRI-neurofeedback.
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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Frontiers, 2017, 11, 〈10.3389/fnhum.2017.00193〉
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Lorraine Perronnet, Anatole Lécuyer, Marsel Mano, Elise Bannier, Fabien Lotte, et al.. Unimodal Versus Bimodal EEG-fMRI Neurofeedback of a Motor Imagery Task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Frontiers, 2017, 11, 〈10.3389/fnhum.2017.00193〉. 〈hal-01519755〉

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