, the PIE present *b?rém-e/o-reflected for example in Lat. frem? and Welsh bref-'to low, bleat

, Gr. ????? 'to look' and Gr. ???????? 'eyelid'

, This pseudo-participle is likely to have resulted from an older nasal theme Gr. *??????, -????. 58 It would have derived from Com. Gr. *blék?on reflecting Substr. *bléKwon-< PIE *b?lé?-?-onwith application of the posttonic fortition introduced above. The underlying root is PIE *b?le?-'sparkle, shine' (LIV²: 86), attested for example in Lat. fulge? 'glitter', in inherited Gr. ????? 'to burn, light' and, interestingly from a semantic point of view, To. B palyka/To. A pälk?t [pret.] 'saw' (Hackstein 1995: 112-113 15 ). Note also ???????? [n.] 'eyelid', a singulative from plural ???????, itself probably from an older athematic singular *?????? < Com. Gr. *blék??ar from Substr. *bléKwr? < PIE *b?lé?-?-r? 'wink'. 59 These etymologies suggest that the treatment PIE *#b?r-> Substr. *#br-also applies to liquids (PIE *#b?l-> Substr. *#bl-). Therefore, Gr. ????? (+acc.) 'to look' is probably a late pseudo-verb created on the basis of Gr. ??????, ????????? 'looking

. Gr, ???????? 'vault of a roof, roof (beam)' and Gr. ????????? '(vault of a) roof

. Hom and . Gr, vault of a roof, roof-beam, roof' (plural: 'dwelling, house') cannot be directly compared to the adjective ??????? 'high' ( < Com. Gr. ???????), which shows the expected outcome of a PIE etymon *ml? h?-d?-r-ó-, with the expected outcome -??-of the long sonorant inherited from PIE *-l? h?-(Beekes 2010: 923, s. v. ????????). We do however believe that both words belong to the PIE root *melh?-'to emerge from, pp.433-434

, For a parallel, see the pseudo-verb ???? 'to be sober' created from its participle ?????, -?????, together with the dative plural form ?????? in Theognis, 1994.

, We believe that the word is indeed not inherited, but that the connection with the PIE root *(s)pelH-holds. We start from a PIE neutral substantive *(s)pélH-tr? 'splitting, defecation', with the same well-known word-formation pattern as suggested above for Gr. ????????. 61 This would have yielded Substr. *spélaTr? 'dung' borrowed as Com. Gr. *spélat?ar 'id, Forms with an initial ?-are also attested, namely the optative ?????????? (Alcman) and the noun ???????? (Alcman, Pindar)

, droppings of goats and sheep' (obscure) and Hom. Gr. ????? [m.] 'dung, excrement of animals' (? 775, 777), from PIE *son-d?h?-ó-'set apart

, Gr. ???????? 'cleft, abyss'

. Gr, 200, s. v. ????????), in view of these variants, the word is Pre-Greek and the connection with ???????? 'devour' cannot be maintained. Indeed, PIE *g?erh?-/*g?r? h?-'devour' (cf. Lat. uor?re 'id.') would yield Gr. **????-/???-(< Com. Gr. *g?ero-/*g?ro-). The odd variant ?????? is explained as a shortened variant of ???????? by Szemerényi (1964: 261), who assumes that a former *brét?ron underwent a dissimilation, *brét?ron itself being syncopated from ????????, following the same pattern as Gr, cleft, abyss' is an obscure form which is related to Hom. Gr. ????????, Arc. ???????? and the Hesychian gloss ?????? [Euphorio]? ?????, ??????????? 'pit, prison'. According to Beekes, 2010.

, 208 56 ), with a regressive vowel assimilation *e-a > a-a that is also attested in Greek, next to the progressive assimilation *e-a > e-e previously mentioned. 63 Another problem is that the laryngeal *h? is reflected as Gr. ?, which can no longer be accepted as a valid Greek treatment. Yet such a treatment, with a-vocalisation of laryngeals, is attested in many Indo-European languages, including our substrate language as discussed above for Gr. ????????. We assume a PIE etymon *g?érh?-tr? [n.] 'swallowing', with a secondary plural *g?ér(h?).tr-eh? 'clefts, abysses' endowed with a concrete meaning, Gr. ???-instead of Gr. ????-as found in ????-???? < Com. Gr. *g?éra-t?ron (cf. Semerényi 1964: 215 5 and Kury?owicz, 1956.

, GEW: 2, 763, s. v. ???????? mentions Ger. scheißen 'to defecate' < *'to separate' (cf. PIE root *s??ei? d-'to cut, separate')

. Cf and . Gr, ??????? 'greatness' next to Gr. ????? 'great' from PIE *mé?-h?, already cited above

, flat stone' if from *???????? (Ved. prathimán-'wideness'). several treatments in common with Hittite ((#)D? > (#)T, C?r? C > CurC) and even more so with Tocharian, besides the fact that all these languages are centum. 1. Centum treatment: ? > K 2. Laryngeal treatment: CHC > C?C 3. b?R > bR

, Metathesis of non-syllabic liquids: CVRC > CRVC (before step 10 because of Lat. corbis before step 11 because of Gr. ??????)

, Schwa epenthesis of the form #(s)klV-> #(s)k?lV

, Verner-like lenition and fortition rules: P > P?/V?(R)(s)_ and P > B/_(R)(s)V?, where P denotes any stop

, This matches the town name ?????? 'Crotone' located in Calabria, Southern Italy. The following scenario can therefore be suggested. First, ancestors of Greek (i. e. speakers of Common Greek, 3rd millennium BC) could have been in contact with speakers of our substrate language, most probably before entering Greece. Later on, (some of) the speakers of our substrate language could have reached Southern Italy, founding cities such as Crotone, and (later?) have been there in contact with speakers of Italic languages as they spread over the Italian peninsula (end of the 2nd millennium BC). This would account for the borrowings in both (Common) Greek and (Late Common) Italic as well as for our suggestion regarding the etymology of the city name ??????, Nasal anticipation: VPNV > VNBV 10. Resyllabification: C?r? C > CurC 11. Word-initial treatments: #pr > #br and #tr > #Tr 12

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