Intégration des savoirs et préservation des spécificités

Abstract : The need to combine the knowledges derived from various intellectual methods and traditions is the major challenge of scientific innovation since the birth of modern science. Beyond the problem of the heterogeneous knowledge, there is also the difficulty of their interpretation, whose resolution has for long been sought through reductionism, that is to say, through making a particular theoretical system an integral part of another system that one better skills. But integration cannot happen without any loss or, at the very least, without any distortion. If it can be relevant in specific cases, as soon as the case of genuinely independent sciences comes forth, this method quickly become problematic. Regarding for instance technology and psychology, reduction method brings us to count the brain as analogous to the computer. But experience shows that this idea is false, which brings us to consider another way to allow the dialogue between knowledge without misrepresent them. As a method used in epistemology, integration is based on the establishment of a hypertheory. This via media aims to be opened through the analysis of main concepts which stemmed from each science and of the principles which link those concepts as well. If one starts with the premise of this hypertheory as projection from a field to another, it becomes possible to set up an authentic transdisciplinarity. The other major interest of this way of thinking is its universality. Since it is based on a metalanguage, one can consider the joint integration of various theoretical systems, but one can also acquire effective tools, compare various positions concerning a specific problem to each other and hence take a more effective and secure action. The confirmation of the theoretical systems “through construction” finds its full meaning when applied to the specific problems of the convergence of NBIC techniques (Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information technology and Cognitive science), as those techniques stem from sciences which fundamentally differ from another. Considering the specific problem of the human-machine system design, this paper aims to analyze the possibility to conceptualize the human element and the technical element through both notions of integration and system.
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Rémi Nazin. Intégration des savoirs et préservation des spécificités. Journée Internationale des Jeunes Chercheurs 2016, École Doctorale Stanislas (Langage, Temps, Société), Jun 2016, Nancy, France. ⟨hal-01718230⟩

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