P. Ferdinand, The Internet, democracy and democratization, Democratization, vol.7, issue.1, pp.1-17, 2000.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1467-923X.1983.tb02322.x

M. Revenaugh, Beyond the Digital Divide: Pathways to Equity, Technology & Learning, issue.1, pp.38-50, 2000.

M. Tateno, T. W. Park, T. Kato, W. Umene-nakano, and T. Saito, Hikikomori as a possible clinical term in psychiatry: a questionnaire survey, BMC Psychiatry, vol.194, issue.6, p.169, 2012.
DOI : 10.1192/bjp.bp.108.059345

N. Tajan, Japanese post-modern social renouncers: An exploratory study of the narratives of Hikikomori subjects, Subjectivity, vol.21, issue.1, pp.283-304, 2015.
DOI : 10.1080/01425690095171

M. Warschauer, Reconceptualizing the Digital Divide, First Monday, vol.7, issue.7, 2002.
DOI : 10.5210/fm.v7i7.967

M. Warschauer, Technology and Equity in Schooling: Deconstructing the Digital Divide, Educational Policy, vol.8, issue.4, pp.562-588, 2004.
DOI : 10.4135/9781412983488

C. Clark and P. Gorski, Multicultural Education and the Digital Divide: Focus on Socioeconomic Class Background, Multicultural Perspectives, vol.4, issue.3, pp.25-36, 2002.
DOI : 10.1207/S15327892MCP0403_6

L. Kvasny, Cultural (Re)production of digital inequality in a US community technology initiative, Information, Communication & Society, vol.9, issue.2, pp.160-181, 2006.
DOI : 10.1080/13691180600630740

G. Gudmundsdottir, From digital divide to digital equity: Learners' ICT competence in four primary schools in Cape Town, South Africa, Int. J. Educ. Dev. using ICT, vol.6, pp.84-105, 2010.

A. Ritzhaupt and F. Liu, Differences in Student Information and Communication Technology Literacy Based on Socio-Economic Status, Ethnicity, and Gender, Journal of Research on Technology in Education, vol.56, issue.3, pp.291-307, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.compedu.2010.10.016

S. Willis and B. Tranter, Beyond the ???digital divide???, Journal of Sociology, vol.7, issue.11, pp.43-59, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/j.1839-4655.2000.tb01095.x

B. Gigler, Including the Excluded-Can ICTs empower poor communities? Towards an alternative evaluation framework based on the capability approach, 4th International Conference on the Capability Approach, 2004.

J. Johnstone, Technology as empowerment: a capability approach to computer ethics, Ethics and Information Technology, vol.20, issue.1, pp.73-87, 2007.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511806193

B. Gigler, Informational Capabilities-The Missing Link for the Impact of ICT on development World Bank ICT Sect. Week . E-Transformation Work, Pap. Ser. World Bank Work. Pap. Ser, 2011.

E. Simsek and A. Simsek, New Literacies for Digital Citizenship, Contemp. Educ. Technol, vol.4, pp.126-137, 2013.

N. Selwyn, Reconsidering Political and Popular Understandings of the Digital Divide, New Media & Society, vol.17, issue.3, pp.341-362, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/0020-0271(73)90096-X

L. Wei and D. B. Hindman, Does the Digital Divide Matter More? Comparing the Effects of New Media and Old Media Use on the Education-Based Knowledge Gap, Mass Communication and Society, vol.13, issue.2, pp.216-235, 2011.
DOI : 10.1177/0894439303021002001

B. Gigler, Poverty, Inequality, and Human Development of Indigenous Peoples in Bolivia, 2009.
DOI : 10.1596/978-1-4648-0420-5_ch3

R. Heeks and A. Molla, Impact Assessment of ICT-for-Development Projects: A Compendium of Approaches, 2009.

R. Heeks, Do information and communication technologies (ICTs) contribute to development?, Journal of International Development, vol.21, issue.3, pp.625-640, 2010.
DOI : 10.1002/jid.1716

E. Commission, The International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS) : Main findings and implications for education policies in Europe, 2014.

M. Resnick, M. Flanagan, C. Kelleher, M. Maclaurin, Y. Ohshima et al., Growing Up Programming Democratizing the Creation of Dynamic, Interactive Media, CHI EA '09 Proceedings of the 27th international conference extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, pp.3293-3296, 2009.

J. Hromkovi? and B. Steffen, Why Teaching Informatics in Schools Is as Important as Teaching Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Informatics in Schools. Contributing to 21st Century Education: 5th International Conference on Informatics in Schools: Situation, Evolution and Perspectives Proceedings. pp, pp.21-30, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/11915355_20

M. M. Sys?o and A. B. Kwiatkowska, Informatics for All High School Students A Computational Thinking Approach, Informatics in Schools. Sustainable Informatics Education for Pupils of all Ages: 6th International Conference on Informatics in Schools: Situation, Evolution, and Perspectives, ISSEP 2013 Proceedings. pp, pp.87-100, 2013.

C. Schulte, Reflections on the role of programming in primary and secondary computing education, Proceedings of the 8th Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education on, WiPSE '13, pp.17-24, 2013.
DOI : 10.1145/2532748.2532754

E. T. Stringer, Action research, p.1, 2013.

M. Brydon-miller, D. Greenwood, and P. Maguire, Why Action Research?, Action Research, vol.1, issue.1, pp.9-28, 2003.
DOI : 10.1108/09696470210428822

M. Warschauer, Technology and Social Inclusion: rethinking the digital divide, p.216, 2003.

D. Kleine, ICT4WHAT?-Using the choice framework to operationalise the capability approach to development, Journal of International Development, vol.XXXVI, issue.4, pp.674-692, 2010.
DOI : 10.1093/jnlecg/lbh027

C. Schulte, Reflections on the role of programming in primary and secondary computing education, Proceedings of the 8th Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education on, WiPSE '13, pp.17-24, 2013.
DOI : 10.1145/2532748.2532754