F. A. , 4-La galaxie NGC3344, vol.23

, Il s'agit une galaxie spirale barrée (à l'instar de la Voie Lactée), mais ses bras sont peu distincts

, FIGURE A.5-La galaxie M83 (NGC 5236), appelée aussi Galaxie du Moulinet du Sud ou Galaxie aux Mille Rubis [23

F. Michael, . Barnsley, and D. Stephen, Iterated function systems and the global construction of fractals, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol.399, pp.243-275, 1817.

A. Robert, E. Benjamin, B. L. Churchwell, R. Babler, M. R. Indebetouw et al., First glimpse results on the stellar structure of the galaxy, vol.630, p.149, 2005.

B. Antoine, N. Fabrice, M. Nelson, E. Bruneton, and C. Cyril, Interactive multiple anisotropic scattering in clouds, Proceedings of the 2008 symposium on Interactive 3D graphics and games, pp.173-182, 2008.

, Per CARLQVIST : Model of outgrowths in the spiral galaxies NGC 4921 and NGC 7049 and the origin of spiral arms, Astrophysics and Space Science, vol.343, issue.2, pp.689-712, 2013.

I. V. Chilingarian, D. I. Paola, . Matteo, C. Francoise, A. Melchior et al., The galmer database : galaxy mergers in the virtual observatory, Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol.518, p.61, 2010.

L. Robert, . Cook, and D. Tony, Wavelet noise, vol.24, pp.803-811, 2005.

G. Courtes and R. Dubout-crillon, Evidence and velocity of a density wave in the galaxy M33, vol.11, p.468, 1971.

C. L. Dobbs, C. Theis, J. E. Pringle, and M. R. Bate, Simulations of the grand design galaxy M51 : a case study for analysing tidally induced spiral structure, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol.403, issue.2, pp.625-645, 2010.

L. Clare, I. A. Dobbs, and . Bonnell, Spurs and feathering in spiral galaxies, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol.367, issue.3, pp.873-878, 2006.

S. David and . Ebert, Texturing & modeling : a procedural approach, 2003.

G. Bruce, D. Elmegreen, E. Meloy, E. Philip, and . Seiden, Spiral arm amplitude variations and pattern speeds in the grand design galaxies M51, M81, and M100, The Astrophysical Journal, vol.343, pp.602-607, 1989.

D. M. Elmegreen, Properties of spurs in spiral galaxies, The Astrophysical Journal, vol.242, pp.528-532, 1980.

G. Bruno, L. Ares, L. Sylvain, and D. George, Gabor noise by example, ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), vol.31, issue.4, p.73, 2012.

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L. Images-de and . Nasa,

. Statut-des-sondes and . Voyager,

. Cartographier-la-voie-lactée,

G. Le-satellite,

, Pages Wikipédia des galaxies étudiées (cette liste recense les pages en français-des informations peuvent provenir des pages correspondantes en anglais

, Communications personnelles avec l'astronome Françoise Combes

, Communications personnelles avec les chercheurs du projet veRTIGE

, Rapport de projet de fin d'études de Guillaume Loubet-Global appearance of nonuniform volumes of stars and dust clouds for the realistic real-time rendering of

, Repère tangent-radial ou repère de Frenet

, Traitement des images du satellite Hubble