Simulating Turgor-Induced Stress Patterns in Multilayered Plant Tissues

Abstract : The intertwining between mechanics and developmental biology is extensively stud-2 ied at the shoot apical meristem of land plants. Indeed, plants morphogenesis heavily 3 relies on mechanics; tissue deformations are fueled by turgor-induced forces, and cell 4 mechanosensitivity plays a major regulatory role in this dynamics. Since measure-5 ments of forces in growing meristems are still out of reach, our current knowledge 6 relies mainly on theoretical and numerical models. So far, these modeling efforts have 1 7 been mostly focusing on the epidermis, where aerial organs are initiated. In many 8 models, the epidermis is assimilated to its outermost cell walls and described as a thin 9 continuous shell under pressure, thereby neglecting the inner walls. There is, how-10 ever, growing experimental evidence suggesting a significant mechanical role of these 11 inner walls. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of inner walls on the 12 mechanical homeostasis of meristematic tissues. To this end, we simulated numeri-13 cally the effect of turgor-induced loading, both in realistic flower buds and in more 14 abstract structures. These simulations were performed using finite element meshes 2 15 with subcellular resolution. Our analysis sheds light on the mechanics of growing 16 plants by revealing the strong influence of inner walls on the epidermis mechanical 17 stress pattern especially in negatively curved regions. Our simulations also display 18 some strong and unsuspected features, such as a correlation between stress intensity 19 and cell size, as well as differential response to loading between epidermal and inner 20 cells. Finally, we monitored the time evolution of the mechanical stresses felt by each 21 cell and its descendants during the early steps of flower morphogenesis.
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Olivier Ali, Hadrien Oliveri, Jan Traas, Christophe Godin. Simulating Turgor-Induced Stress Patterns in Multilayered Plant Tissues. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, Springer Verlag, 2019, pp.1-23. ⟨10.1007/s11538-019-00622-z⟩. ⟨hal-02154814⟩

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