T. Weiser, A. Haynes, G. Molina, S. Lipsitz, M. Esquivel et al., Size and distribution of the global volume of surgery in 2012, Bull World Health Organ, vol.94, issue.3, pp.201-210, 2016.

J. J. Pandit, J. Andrade, D. G. Bogod, J. M. Hitchman, W. R. Jonker et al., Royal College of Anaesthetists, Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland. 5th national audit project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors, Br J Anaesth, vol.113, pp.549-59, 2014.

D. Almeida, Awake and unable to move: what can perioperative practitioners do to avoid accidental awareness under general anesthesia?, J Perioper Pract, vol.25, issue.12, pp.257-61, 2015.

P. Sebel, T. Bowdle, M. Ghoneim, I. Rampil, R. Padilla et al., The incidence of awareness during anesthesia: a multicenter United States study, Anesth Analg, vol.99, issue.3, pp.833-842, 2004.

M. Avidan, L. Zhang, B. A. Burnside, K. J. Finkel, A. C. Searleman et al., Anesthesia awareness and the bispectral index, N Engl J Med, vol.358, issue.11, pp.1097-108, 2008.

L. Xu, A. Wu, and Y. Yue, The incidence of intra-operative awareness during general anesthesia in China: a multi-center observational study, Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, vol.53, issue.7, pp.873-82, 2009.

J. E. Osterman, J. Hopper, W. J. Heran, T. M. Keane, and B. A. Van-der-kolk, Awareness under anesthesia and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder, Gen Hosp Psychiatry, vol.23, issue.4, pp.142-148, 2001.

K. Lau, B. Matta, D. Menon, and A. Absalom, Attitudes of anaesthetists to awareness and depth of anaesthesia monitoring in the UK, Eur J Anaesthesiol, vol.23, issue.11, pp.921-951, 2006.

P. Bischoff and I. Rundshagen, Awareness under general anesthesia, Dtsch Arztebl Int, vol.108, issue.1-2, pp.1-7, 2011.

G. Mashour and M. Avidan, Intraoperative awareness: controversies and con-controversies, Br J Anaesth, vol.115, issue.1, pp.20-26, 2015.

J. J. Pandit, I. F. Russell, and M. Wang, Interpretations of responses using the isolated forearm technique in general anaesthesia: a debate, Br J Anaesth, vol.115, pp.32-45, 2015.

P. Punjasawadwong and N. Bunchungmongkol, Bispectral index for improving anaesthetic delivery and postoperative recovery, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, vol.6, 2014.

C. Kent and K. Domino, Depth of anesthesia, Curr Opin Anaesthesiol, vol.22, issue.6, pp.782-789, 2009.

G. A. Mashour and M. Avidan, Intraoperative awareness: controversies and non-controversies, Br J Anaesth, vol.115, pp.20-26, 2015.

G. Schneider, A. Mappes, T. Neissendorfer, M. Schabacker, H. Kuppe et al., EEG-based indices of anaesthesia: correlation between bispectral index and patient state index?, Eur J Anaesthesiol, vol.21, issue.1, pp.6-12, 2004.

M. M. Ghoneim, R. I. Block, M. Haffarnan, and M. J. Mathews, Awareness during anesthesia: risk factors, causes and sequelae: a review of reported cases in the literature, Anesth Analg, vol.108, issue.2, pp.527-562

S. Tasbighou, M. Vogels, and A. Absalom, Accidental awareness during general anaesthesia -a narrative review, Anaesthesia, vol.73, issue.1, pp.112-134, 2018.

J. Wolpaw and E. , Brain-computer interfaces: principles and practice, 2012.

G. Pfurtscheller and C. Neuper, Motor imagery and direct brain-computer communication, Proc IEEE, vol.89, issue.7, pp.1123-1157, 2001.

G. Pfurtscheller, Induced oscillations in the alpha band: functional meaning, Epilepsia, vol.44, issue.12, pp.2-8, 2003.

B. E. Kilavik, M. Zaepffel, A. Brovelli, W. A. Mackay, and A. Riehle, The ups and downs of beta oscillations in sensorimotor cortex, Exp Neurol, vol.245, pp.15-26, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01464144

Y. Hashimoto and J. Ushiba, EEG-based classification of imaginary left and right foot movements using beta rebound, Clin Neurophysiol, vol.124, issue.11, pp.2153-60, 2013.

S. Rimbert, P. Riff, N. Gayraud, and L. Bougrain, Median nerve stimulation based BCI: a new approach to detect intraoperative awareness during general anesthesia, Front Neurosci, vol.13, p.622
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02159777

Y. Blokland, J. Farquhar, J. Lerou, J. Mourisse, G. J. Scheffer et al., Decoding motor responses from the EEG during altered states of consciousness induced by propofol, J Neural Eng, vol.13, issue.2, p.26014, 2016.

A. Schnitzler, S. Salenius, R. Salmelin, V. Jousmaki, and R. Hari, Involvement of primary motor cortex in motor imagery: a neuromagnetic study, Neuroimage, vol.6, issue.3, pp.201-209, 1997.

S. Salenius, A. Schnitzler, R. Salmelin, V. Jousmäki, and R. Hari, Modulation of human cortical rolandic rhythms during natural sensorimotor tasks, NeuroImage, vol.5, issue.3, pp.221-229, 1997.

S. Rimbert, P. G. , N. G. , C. M. Laurent, and B. , Innovative Brain-Computer Interface based on motor cortex activity to detect accidental awareness during general anesthesia, IEEE Internation Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE SMC 2019 -IEEE International Conference on Systems, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02166934

D. Kumbhare, L. Robinson, and R. Buschbacher, Buschbacher's manual of nerve conduction studies, p.10, 2016.

, World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, KIE: KIE Bib: human experimentation, vol.48, pp.206-214, 2002.

Y. Renard, F. Lotte, G. Gibert, M. Congedo, E. Maby et al., OpenViBE: an open-source software platform to design, test and use brain-computer interfaces in real and virtual environments, Presence, vol.10, pp.35-53, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00477153

A. Filgueiras, Q. Conde, E. Hall, and C. , The neural basis of kinesthetic and visual imagery in sports: an ALE meta-analysis. Brain Imaging Behav, 2017.

A. Guillot, C. Collet, V. A. Nguyen, F. Malouin, C. Richards et al., Brain activity during visual versus kinesthetic imagery: an FMRI study, Hum Brain Mapp, vol.30, issue.7, pp.2157-72, 2009.

A. Delorme and S. Makeig, EEGLAB: an open source toolbox for analysis of single-trial EEG dynamics including independent component analysis, J Neurosci Methods, vol.134, issue.1, pp.9-21, 2004.

J. Dien, Issues in the application of the average reference: review, critiques, and recommendations, Behav Res Methods, vol.30, p.34, 1998.

X. Lei and K. Liao, Understanding the influences of EEG reference: a large-scale brain network perspective, Front Neurosci, vol.11, p.205, 2017.

F. Perrin, J. Pernier, O. Betrand, and J. Echallier, Spherical splines for scalp potential and current density mapping, Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, vol.72, issue.2, pp.184-191, 1989.

G. Pfurtscheller and F. H. Lopes-da-silva, Event-related EEG/MEG synchronization and desynchronization: basic principles, Clin Neurophysiol, vol.110, issue.11, pp.1842-57, 1999.

R. Q. Quiroga and H. Garcia, Single-trial event-related potentials with wavelet denoising, Clin Neurophysiol, vol.114, issue.2, pp.376-90, 2003.

C. Brunner, A. Delorme, and S. Makeig, EEGLAB -an open source MATLAB toolbox for electrophysiological research, Biomed Tech, vol.58, pp.9-21, 2013.

B. Manly, Randomization, bootstrap and Monte Carlo methods in biology, 2006.

B. Blankertz, R. Tomioka, S. Lemm, M. Kawanaba, and K. R. Müller, Optimizing spatial filters for robust EEG single-trial analysis, IEEE Signal Proc Mag, vol.25, 2008.

A. Barachant, S. Bonnet, M. Congedo, and C. Jutten, Riemannian geometry applied to BCI classification, International Conference on Latent Variable Analysis and Signal Separation, pp.629-665, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00602700

, Publisher's Note

, Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations