. Ibid,

, ROSCAs refer to groups that regularly collect money from each member and give it to one person in turn; ASCAs refer to groups that regularly collect money from members, and lend to its members or other people with interest

, Leapfrogging': A Survey of the Nature and Economic Implications of Mobile Money, 2017.

C. Avgerou, Information Systems in Developing Countries: A Critical Research Review, Journal of Information Technology, vol.23, pp.133-146, 2008.

A. V. Banerjee and E. Duflo, The Economic Lives of the Poor, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol.21, pp.141-168, 2007.

T. Beck, A. Demirguc-kunt, L. Laeven, and R. Levine, Finance, Firm Size, and Growth, Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, vol.40, issue.7, pp.1379-1405, 2008.

T. Cook and C. Mckay, How M-Shwari Works: The Story So Far, Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP) and Financial Sector Deepening (FSD), 2015.

S. R. Cotten and S. S. Gupta, Characteristics of Online and Offline Health Information Seekers and Factors That Discriminate between Them, Social Science & Medicine, vol.59, pp.1795-1806, 2004.

J. De-haan and S. Rijken, The Digital Divide in the Netherlands: The Influence of Material, Cognitive and Social Resources on the Possession and Use of ICTs, Electronic Journal of Communication, vol.12, issue.2, pp.1-20, 2002.

A. Demirguc-kunt, L. Klapper, and D. Singer, Financial Inclusion and Inclusive Growth: A Review of Recent Empirical Evidence, 2017.

A. Demirguc-kunt, L. Klapper, D. Singer, S. Ansar, and J. Hess, The Global Findex Database 2017: Measuring Financial Inclusion and the Fintech Revolution, 2018.

S. Dewan and F. J. Riggins, The Digital Divide: Current and Future Research Directions, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, vol.6, pp.298-337, 2005.

D. S. Evans and A. Pirchio, An Empirical Examination of Why Mobile Money Schemes Ignite in Some Developing Countries but Flounder in Most, Review of Network Economics, vol.13, pp.397-451, 2015.

C. Foster and R. Heeks, Conceptualising Inclusive Innovation: Modifying Systems of Innovation Frameworks to Understand Diffusion of New Technology to Low-Income Consumers, The European Journal of Development Research, vol.25, pp.333-355, 2013.

G. George, A. M. Mcgahan, and J. Prabhu, Innovation for Inclusive Growth: Towards a Theoretical Framework and a Research Agenda, Journal of Management Studies, vol.49, pp.661-683, 2012.

. Gsma, GSMA, State of the Industry Report on Mobile Money, 2015.

R. Heeks, M. Amalia, R. Kintu, and N. Shah, Inclusive Innovation: Definition, Conceptualisation and Future Research Priorities, IDPM Development Informatics Working Papers, 2013.

W. Jack, A. Ray, and T. Suri, Transaction Networks: Evidence from Mobile Money in Kenya, American Economic Review, vol.103, pp.356-361, 2013.

W. Jack and T. Suri, Mobile Money: The Economics of M-Pesa, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2011.

W. Jack and T. Suri, Risk Sharing and Transactions Costs: Evidence from Kenya's Mobile Money Revolution, American Economic Review, vol.104, pp.183-223, 2014.

W. Jack, T. Suri, T. , and R. , Monetary Theory and Electronic Money: Reflections on the Kenyan Experience, Economic Quarterly (96:1), pp.83-122, 2010.

J. Kallinikos, H. Hasselbladh, and A. Marton, Governing Social Practice, Theory and Society, vol.42, pp.395-421, 2013.

D. Karlan, A. L. Ratan, and J. Zinman, Savings by and for the Poor: A Research Review and Agenda, Review of Income and Wealth, vol.60, pp.36-78, 2014.

F. N. Kibere, The Paradox of Mobility in the Kenyan ICT Ecosystem: An Ethnographic Case of How the Youth in Kibera Slum Use and Appropriate the Mobile Phone and the Mobile Internet, Information Technology for Development, vol.22, pp.47-67, 2016.

H. Kim and A. Kankanhalli, Investigating User Resistance to Information Systems Implementation: A Status Quo Bias Perspective, MIS Quarterly, vol.33, pp.567-582, 2009.

S. Madon, N. Reinhard, D. Roode, and G. Walsham, Digital Inclusion Projects in Developing Countries: Processes of Institutionalization, vol.15, pp.95-107, 2009.

J. Mahoney and R. S. Vanderpoel, Set Diagrams and Qualitative Research, Comparative Political Studies, vol.48, pp.65-100, 2015.

I. Mas, New Opportunities to Tackle the Challenge of Financial Inclusion, Working Paper Series, issue.40, 2010.

I. Mbiti and D. N. Weil, Mobile Banking: The Impact of M-Pesa in Kenya, National Bureau of Economic Research, 2011.

A. Mirzoyants-mcknight and W. Attfield, Value-Added Financial Services in Kenya: M-Shwari, 2015.

G. K. Munyegera and T. Matsumoto, Mobile Money, Remittances and Rural Household Welfare: Panel Evidence from Uganda, Tokyo: GRIPS, 2014.

P. Nielsen, Digital Innovation: A Research Agenda for Information Systems Research in Developing Countries, International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries, pp.269-279, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01650054

C. K. Prahalad, Bottom of the Pyramid as a Source of Breakthrough Innovations, Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol.29, pp.6-12, 2012.

S. Qureshi, Networks of Change, Shifting Power from Institutions to People: How Are Innovations in the Use of Information and Communication Technology Transforming Development?, Information Technology for Development, vol.19, issue.2, pp.97-99, 2013.

D. Radcliffe and R. Voorhies, A Digital Pathway to Financial Inclusion, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2012.

S. Rutherford, The Poor and Their Money, 2000.

R. Sahay, M. ?ihák, P. N'diaye, A. Barajas, S. Mitra et al., Financial Inclusion: Can It Meet Multiple Macroeconomic Goals?, 2015.

H. Saigo, Comparing Four Bootstrap Methods for Stratified Three-Stage Sampling, Journal of Official Statistics, vol.26, pp.193-207, 2010.

A. Sen, Social Exclusion: Concept, Application, and Scrutiny, 2000.

R. Stewart, C. Van-rooyen, K. Dickson, M. Majoro, and T. De-wet, What Is the Impact of Microfinance on Poor People?: A Systematic Review of Evidence from SubSaharan Africa, 2010.

D. Tilson, K. Lyytinen, and C. Sørensen, Research Commentary-Digital Infrastructures: The Missing IS Research Agenda, Information Systems Research, vol.21, pp.748-759, 2010.

T. Triki, F. , I. Van-dijk, J. Hacker, and K. , The Digital Divide as a Complex and Dynamic Phenomenon, The Information Society, vol.19, pp.315-326, 2003.

J. A. Van-dijk, A Theory of the Digital Divide, The Digital Divide. Routledge, pp.49-72, 2013.

G. Walsham and S. Sahay, Research on Information Systems in Developing Countries: Current Landscape and Future Prospects, Information Technology for Development, vol.12, pp.7-24, 2006.

P. Wanyonyi and H. Bwisa, Influence of Mobile Money Transfer Services on the Performance of Micro Enterprises in Kitale Municipality, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, vol.3, pp.500-517, 2013.

G. Wright and L. Mutesasira, The Relative Risks to Poor People's Savings, Journal of Small Enterprise Development, vol.12, pp.33-45, 2001.

Y. Yoo, R. J. Boland, K. Lyytinen, and A. Majchrzak, Organizing for Innovation in the Digitized World, Organization Science, vol.23, pp.1398-1408, 2012.