Gut microbiota depletion exacerbates cholestatic liver injury via loss of FXR signalling - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles Nature Metabolism Year : 2021

Gut microbiota depletion exacerbates cholestatic liver injury via loss of FXR signalling

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Eric Gálvez
Till Strowig

Abstract

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown aetiology for which there are no approved therapeutic options. Patients with PSC display changes in gut microbiota and in bile acid (BA) composition; however, the contribution of these alterations to disease pathogenesis remains controversial. Here we identify a role for microbiota-dependent changes in BA synthesis that modulates PSC pathophysiology. In a genetic mouse model of PSC, we show that loss of microbiota-mediated negative feedback control of BA synthesis results in increased hepatic BA concentrations, disruption of bile duct barrier function and, consequently, fatal liver injury. We further show that these changes are dependent on decreased BA signalling to the farnesoid X receptor, which modulates the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme in BA synthesis, CYP7A1. Moreover, patients with advanced stages of PSC show suppressed BA synthesis as measured by serum C4 levels, which is associated with poor disease prognosis. Our preclinical data highlight the microbiota-dependent dynamics of BA metabolism in cholestatic liver disease, which could be important for future therapies targeting BA and gut microbiome interactions, and identify C4 as a potential biomarker to functionally stratify patients with PSC and predict disease outcomes.
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Dates and versions

hal-03505821 , version 1 (31-12-2021)

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Kai Markus Schneider, Lena Susanna Candels, Johannes Hov, Maiju Myllys, Reham Hassan, et al.. Gut microbiota depletion exacerbates cholestatic liver injury via loss of FXR signalling. Nature Metabolism, 2021, 3 (9), pp.1228-1241. ⟨10.1038/s42255-021-00452-1⟩. ⟨hal-03505821⟩
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