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Computing the Shapley Value of Facts in Query Answering

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Daniel Deutch
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  • PersonId : 1122100
Nave Frost
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Mikaël Monet
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The Shapley value is a game-theoretic notion for wealth distribution that is nowadays extensively used to explain complex data-intensive computation, for instance, in network analysis or machine learning. Recent theoretical works show that query evaluation over relational databases fits well in this explanation paradigm. Yet, these works fall short of providing practical solutions to the computational challenge inherent to the Shapley computation. We present in this paper two practically effective solutions for computing Shapley values in query answering. We start by establishing a tight theoretical connection to the extensively studied problem of query evaluation over probabilistic databases, which allows us to obtain a polynomial-time algorithm for the class of queries for which probability computation is tractable. We then propose a first practical solution for computing Shapley values that adopts tools from probabilistic query evaluation. In particular, we capture the dependence of query answers on input database facts using Boolean expressions (data provenance), and then transform it, via Knowledge Compilation, into a particular circuit form for which we devise an algorithm for computing the Shapley values. Our second practical solution is a faster yet inexact approach that transforms the provenance to a Conjunctive Normal Form and uses a heuristic to compute the Shapley values. Our experiments on TPC-H and IMDB demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our solutions.
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hal-03514297 , version 1 (06-01-2022)


  • HAL Id : hal-03514297 , version 1


Daniel Deutch, Nave Frost, Benny Kimelfeld, Mikaël Monet. Computing the Shapley Value of Facts in Query Answering. SIGMOD Conference 2022, Jun 2022, Philadelphia, United States. ⟨hal-03514297⟩
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