G. , D. Battista, P. Eades, R. Tamassia, and I. G. Tollis, Graph drawing -Algorithms for the visualization of graphs, 1999.

H. Purchase, Effective information visualization: a study of graph drawing aesthetics and algorithms, Interacting with computers, vol.13, issue.2, 2000.

P. Eades and N. Wormald, Edge crossings in drawings of bipartite graphs, Algorithmica, vol.7, issue.2, pp.379-403, 1994.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01187020

A. Papakostas, J. M. Six, and I. G. Tollis, Experimental and theoretical results in interactive orthogonal graph drawing, Proc. of Graph Drawing'96, pp.371-386, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/3-540-62495-3_61

P. Eades, W. Lai, K. Misue, and K. Sugiyama, Preserving the mental map of a diagram, Proc. of Compugraphics, pp.24-33, 1991.

L. J. Groves, Z. Michalewicz, P. V. Elia, and C. Z. Janikow, Genetic algorithms for drawing directed graphs, Proc. of the 5 th Int. Symp. on Methodologies for Intelligent Systems, pp.268-276, 1990.

A. Ochoa-rodrìguez and A. Rosete-suàrez, Automatic graph drawing by genetic search, Proc. of the 11 th Int. Conf. on CAD, CAM, Robotics and Manufactories of the Future, pp.982-987, 1995.

J. Utech, J. Branke, H. Schmeck, and P. Eades, An evolutionary algorithm for drawing directed graphs, Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Imaging Science, Systems and Technology, pp.154-160, 1998.

P. Kuntz, B. Pinaud, and R. Lehn, Elements for the Description of Fitness Landscapes Associated with Local Operators for Layered Drawings of Directed Graphs, Metaheuristics: Computer Decision- Making, pp.405-420, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4757-4137-7_19

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inria-00335923

M. Laguna, R. Marti, and V. Valls, Arc crossing minimization in hierarchical digraphs with tabu search, Computers & Operations Research, vol.24, issue.12, pp.1175-1186, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0305-0548(96)00083-4

K. Sugiyama, S. Tagawa, and M. Toda, Methods for Visual Understanding of Hierarchical System Structures, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol.11, issue.2, pp.109-125, 1981.
DOI : 10.1109/TSMC.1981.4308636

R. Marti, Arc crossing minimization in graphs with GRASP, IIE Transactions, vol.2, issue.10, pp.913-919, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02125456

J. Branke, Dynamic Graph Drawing, Drawing Graphs: methods and models, pp.228-246, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/3-540-44969-8_9

K. F. Böhringer and F. N. Paulisch, Using constraints to achieve stability in automatic graph layout algorithms, Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems Empowering people, CHI '90, pp.43-51, 1990.
DOI : 10.1145/97243.97250

S. C. North, Incremental layout in DynaDAG, Proc. of Graph Drawing'95, pp.409-418, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/BFb0021824

S. Bridgeman and R. Tamassia, A User Study in Similarity Measures for Graph Drawing, Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications, vol.6, issue.3, pp.225-254, 2002.
DOI : 10.7155/jgaa.00053

D. Whitley and N. Yoo, Modeling Simple Genetic Algorithms for Permutation Problems, Fundations of Genetic Algorithms III, pp.163-184, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-1-55860-356-1.50013-3

A. C. Carlos and . Coello, A comprehensive survey of evolutionary-based multiobjective optimization techniques, Knowledge and information systems, vol.1, issue.3, pp.269-308, 1999.