Evasiveness and the Distribution of Prime Numbers

Abstract : We confirm the eventual evasiveness of several classes of monotone graph properties under widely accepted number theoretic hypotheses. In particular we show that Chowla's conjecture on Dirichlet primes implies that (a) for any graph $H$, "forbidden subgraph $H$" is eventually evasive and (b) all nontrivial monotone properties of graphs with $\le n^{3/2-\epsilon}$ edges are eventually evasive. ($n$ is the number of vertices.) While Chowla's conjecture is not known to follow from the Extended Riemann Hypothesis (ERH, the Riemann Hypothesis for Dirichlet's $L$ functions), we show (b) with the bound $O(n^{5/4-\epsilon})$ under ERH. We also prove unconditional results: (a$'$) for any graph $H$, the query complexity of "forbidden subgraph $H$" is $\binom{n}{2} - O(1)$; (b$'$) for some constant $c>0$, all nontrivial monotone properties of graphs with $\le cn\log n+O(1)$ edges are eventually evasive. Even these weaker, unconditional results rely on deep results from number theory such as Vinogradov's theorem on the Goldbach conjecture. Our technical contribution consists in connecting the topological framework of Kahn, Saks, and Sturtevant (1984), as further developed by Chakrabarti, Khot, and Shi (2002), with a deeper analysis of the orbital structure of permutation groups and their connection to the distribution of prime numbers. Our unconditional results include stronger versions and generalizations of some result of Chakrabarti et al.
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Conference papers
Jean-Yves Marion and Thomas Schwentick. 27th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science - STACS 2010, Mar 2010, Nancy, France. pp.71-82, 2010, Proceedings of the 27th Annual Symposium on the Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science
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Laszlo Babai, Anandam Banerjee, Raghav Kulkarni, Vipul Naik1. Evasiveness and the Distribution of Prime Numbers. Jean-Yves Marion and Thomas Schwentick. 27th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science - STACS 2010, Mar 2010, Nancy, France. pp.71-82, 2010, Proceedings of the 27th Annual Symposium on the Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science. <inria-00455343>

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