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A numerically stable fragile watermarking scheme for authenticating 3D models

Wei-Bo Wang 1 Guo-Qin Zheng 2 Jun-Hai yong 1 He-Jin Gu 3 
2 CAD - Computer Aided Design
LIAMA - Laboratoire Franco-Chinois d'Informatique, d'Automatique et de Mathématiques Appliquées, Inria Paris-Rocquencourt
Abstract : This paper analyzes the numerically instable problem in the current 3D fragile watermarking schemes. Some existing fragile watermarking schemes apply the floating-point arithmetic to embed the watermarks. However, these schemes fail to work properly due to the numerically instable problem, which is common in the floating-point arithmetic. This paper proposes a numerically stable fragile watermarking scheme. The scheme views the mantissa part of the floating-point number as an unsigned integer and operates on it by the bit XOR operator. Since there is no numerical problem in the bit operation, this scheme is numerically stable. The scheme can control the watermark strength through changing the embedding parameters. This paper further discusses selecting appropriate embedding parameters to achieve good performance in terms of the perceptual invisibility and the ability to detect unauthorized attacks on the 3D models. The experimental results show that the proposed public scheme could detect attacks such as adding noise, adding/deleting faces, inserting/removing vertices, etc. The comparisons with the existing fragile schemes show that this scheme is easier to implement and use.
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Wei-Bo Wang, Guo-Qin Zheng, Jun-Hai yong, He-Jin Gu. A numerically stable fragile watermarking scheme for authenticating 3D models. Computer-Aided Design, Elsevier, 2008. ⟨inria-00517327⟩

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