Estimation de l'attitude d'un satellite à l'aide de caméras pushbroom et de capteurs stellaires

Abstract : Linear pushbroom cameras are widely used for earth observation applications. This sensor acquires 1-D images over time and uses the straight motion of the satellite to sweep out a region of space and build 2-D image ; it operates in the same way as a usual flatbed scanner. Main advantages of such technology are : robustness in the space context, higher resolution than classical 2-D CCD sensors and low production cost. To build color images, several pushbroom cameras of different modalities are set in parallel onto the satellite’s focal plane. This acquisition process is dependent of the time and assumes that the satellite’s attitude remains constant during the image recording. However, the recent manufacture of smal- ler satellites with higher sampling resolution has weakened this assumption. The satellite may oscillates around its rotations axis, and an angular variation of a few microradians can result in noticeable warps in images. Current solutions use inertial sensors on board the satellite to control the attitude and correct the images, but they are costly and of limited precision. As warped images do contain the information of attitude variations, we suggest to use image registration to es- timate them. We exploit the geometry of the focal plane and the stationary nature of the disturbances to recover undistorted images. To do so, we embed the estimation process in a Bayesian framework where image registration, prior on attitude variations and mea- surements of a star tracker are fused to retrieve the motion of the satellite. We illustrate the performance of our algorithm on four satellite datasets provided by EADS Astrium.
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Régis Perrier. Estimation de l'attitude d'un satellite à l'aide de caméras pushbroom et de capteurs stellaires. Mathématiques générales [math.GM]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENM040⟩. ⟨tel-00637592⟩



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