Abstract : Adaptation has now become a major challenge in Software Engineering. Engineers are indeed regularly confronted with requests for changes that can take many forms: updates, new versions, new features need etc. This trend is enhanced by the emergence of new areas such as ubiquitous computing or cloud computing that require dynamic changes in rapidly constantly evolving environments. For instance, in these areas, resources are often elastic, volatile and heterogeneous. %This thesis focuses especially in the design and execution of distributed applications composed of heterogeneous entities which need to be adapted at runtime. Our approach is based on service-oriented component models and on the SOA and REST architectural styles. We propose a framework, named RoSe, which enables the import of remote resources in a service-oriented component framework and the export of local services. RoSe allows developers and administrators to manage the distribution of their application in a totally independent and dynamic way thanks to a configuration language and a fluent API. The framework itself is modular, flexible and supports the addition and removal of components during execution. The implementation of RoSe is hosted by OW2 in the Chameleon project and is now used in several industrial and academic projects.