Removing Camera Shake Blur and Unwanted Occluders from Photographs

Oliver Whyte 1
1 WILLOW - Models of visual object recognition and scene understanding
DI-ENS - Département d'informatique de l'École normale supérieure, ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris, Inria Paris-Rocquencourt, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique : UMR8548
Abstract : This thesis investigates the removal of spatially-variant blur from photographs degraded by camera shake, and the removal of large occluding objects from photographs of popular places. We examine these problems in the case where the photographs are taken with standard consumer cameras, and we have no particular information about the scene being photographed. Most existing deblurring methods model the observed blurry image as the convolution of a sharp image with a uniform blur kernel. However, we show that blur from camera shake is in general mostly due to the 3D rotation of the camera, resulting in a blur that can be significantly non-uniform across the image. We model this blur using a weighted set of camera poses, which induce homographies on the image being captured. The blur in a particular image is parameterised by the set of weights, which provides a compact global descriptor for the blur, analogous to a convolution kernel. This descriptor fully captures the spatially-variant blur at all pixels, and is able to model camera shake more accurately than previous methods. We demonstrate direct estimation of the blur weights from single and multiple blurry images captured by conventional cameras. This permits a sharp image to be recovered from a blurry "shaken" image without any user interaction or additional infor- mation about the camera motion. For single image deblurring, we adapt an existing marginalisation-based algorithm and a maximum a posteriori-based algorithm, which are both compatible with our model of spatially-variant blur. In order to reduce the computational cost of our homography-based model, we introduce an efficient approximation based on local-uniformity of the blur. By grouping pixels into local regions which share a single PSF, we are able to take advantage of fast, frequency domain convolutions to perform the blur computation. We apply this approximation to single image deblurring, obtaining an order of magnitude reduction in computation time with no visible reduction in quality. For deblurring images with saturated pixels, we propose a modification of the forward model to include this non-linearity, and re-derive the Richardson-Lucy algorithm with this new model. To prevent ringing artefacts from propagating in the deblurred image, we propose separate updates for those pixels affected by saturation, and those not affected. This prevents the loss of information caused by clipping from propagating to the rest of the image. In order to remove large occluders from photos, we automatically retrieve a set of exemplar images of the same scene from the Internet, using a visual search engine. We extract multiple homographies between each of these images and the target image to provide pixel correspondences. Finally we combine pixels from several exemplars in a seamless manner to replace the occluded pixels, by solving an energy minimisation problem on a conditional random field. Experimental results are shown on both synthetic images and real photographs captured by consumer cameras or downloaded from the Internet.
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Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition [cs.CV]. École normale supérieure de Cachan - ENS Cachan, 2012. English
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Oliver Whyte. Removing Camera Shake Blur and Unwanted Occluders from Photographs. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition [cs.CV]. École normale supérieure de Cachan - ENS Cachan, 2012. English. 〈tel-01063340〉

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