Topological inference from measures

Mickaël Buchet 1
1 GEOMETRICA - Geometric computing
CRISAM - Inria Sophia Antipolis - Méditerranée , Inria Saclay - Ile de France
Abstract : Massive amounts of data are now available for study. Asking questions that are both relevant and possible to answer is a difficult task. One can look for something different than the answer to a precise question. Topological data analysis looks for structure in point cloud data, which can be informative by itself but can also provide directions for further questioning. A common challenge faced in this area is the choice of the right scale at which to process the data.One widely used tool in this domain is persistent homology. By processing the data at all scales, it does not rely on a particular choice of scale. Moreover, its stability properties provide a natural way to go from discrete data to an underlying continuous structure. Finally, it can be combined with other tools, like the distance to a measure, which allows to handle noise that are unbounded. The main caveat of this approach is its high complexity.In this thesis, we will introduce topological data analysis and persistent homology, then show how to use approximation to reduce the computational complexity. We provide an approximation scheme to the distance to a measure and a sparsifying method of weighted Vietoris-Rips complexes in order to approximate persistence diagrams with practical complexity. We detail the specific properties of these constructions.Persistent homology was previously shown to be of use for scalar field analysis. We provide a way to combine it with the distance to a measure in order to handle a wider class of noise, especially data with unbounded errors. Finally, we discuss interesting opportunities opened by these results to study data where parts are missing or erroneous.
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Mickaël Buchet. Topological inference from measures. Computational Geometry [cs.CG]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2014. English. ⟨NNT : 2014PA112367⟩. ⟨tel-01108521⟩

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