Construction of musculoskeletal systems for anatomical simulation

Abstract : The use of virtual humans has spread in various activities in recent years.Beyond virtual surgery, virtual bodies are increasingly used to design medical devices, vehicles, and daily life hardware more generally.They also turn out to be extraordinary supports to learn anatomy.Recent movies (Avatar, Lord of the Rings, etc) demonstrated that anatomy and biomechanics can be used to design high-quality characters.However, reproducing the behavior of anatomical structures remains a complex task, and a great amount and variety of knowledge is necessary for setting up high quality simulations.This makes the modeling of human body for simulation purposes an open problem, a tedious task, but also a fascinating research subject.Through this PhD, we address the problem of the construction of biomechanical models of the musculoskeletal systems for several domains : animation, biomechanics and teaching.Our goal is to simplify the entire process of model design by making it more intuitive and faster.Our approach is to address each difficulty : the representation and use of anatomical knowledge, the geometrical modeling and the efficient simulation of the musculoskeletal system thanks to three novel contributions introduced during these research works.Our first contribution focuses on the biomechanical construction of a hybrid model of lumbar spine.In this work, we show that hybrid approaches that combine both rigid body systems and finite element models allow interactive simulations, accurate, while respecting the principles of anatomy and mechanics.Our second contribution addresses the problem of the complexity of anatomical, physiological and functional knowledge.Based on a novel ontology of anatomical functions of the human body, we introduce a novel pipeline to automatically build models that simulate physiological functions of our bodies.The ontology allows us to extract detailed knowledge using simple queries.The outputs of these queries are used to set up simulation models of the functional aspects as they were formalized and described by anatomists.Finally our third contribution, the anatomy transfer, allows the mapping of available geometrical and mechanical models to the morphology of any specific individual.This novel registration method enables the automatic construction of the internal anatomy of any character defined by his skin, by transferring organs from a reference character.It allows to overcome the need to re-construct these geometries for each new simulation, and it contributes to accelerate the simulations setup for a range of people with different morph
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Ali Hamadi Dicko. Construction of musculoskeletal systems for anatomical simulation. Modeling and Simulation. Université de Grenoble, 2014. English. ⟨NNT : 2014GRENM084⟩. ⟨tel-01111920v2⟩

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