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Computational modeling of internal mechanical structure of plant cells

Abstract : Morphogenesis in plants is an active field of research. While genetics influence on plant shape has been extensively studied, rheology through scales: from cells to the whole organism through various tissues or organs, is still poorly analysed. Nevertheless, it should lead to the understanding of plants evolving, since it directly drives the organism growth.This work aims at understanding the mechanical caracteristics of plant cells, through several realistic and physically based models of various sub-domains of our plant archetype: Arabidopsis thaliana. In this project, a systematic approach has been developped, where the structures underlying such models rely on experimental data (images of different plant organs), describing precisely the inner structure of A. thaliana, which allows the use of realistic meshesfor our simulations.Then physical modelling allows us to retrieve, through the deformation field of different plant sub-domains, the mechanical properties underlying each type of structure described, which is a typical inverse problem form of a complex biological system. We apply this optimization methodology to several plant organs, beginning with embryonic stem, then with roots and finally with meristems, which constitute the zone where cells can divide and growthtypically takes place.Then, we develop a theoretical framework, on which biologists may rely, describing a realistic model of plant sub-system, typically a meristem. We hope that this conceptual framework will help experimentalists to validate some hypothesis regarding plant manipulations that are still subject to debate, as the use of Atomic Force Microscopy to experimentaly extract mechanical parameters from various plant tissues.Finally, we present a new approach coupling a coarse physically based simulation to a more detailed one : the Multifarious Hierarchiy of Mechanical Models. MHMMs are eclectics as they combine arbitrarily any type of physically based simulation (meshless, modal physics, Finite Elements, ...). Moreover, they are flexible as they allow the modularity of the various domainscontaining the underlying models. Finally MHMMs are much faster than full Finite Element simulation, at the same level of detail. This should allow the development of fast algorithm for local detailed simulation, as was the case for the numerical Atomic Force Microscope in previous part.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01237033, version 2

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Richard Malgat. Computational modeling of internal mechanical structure of plant cells. Biomechanics [physics.med-ph]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAM068⟩. ⟨tel-01237033v2⟩

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