Modèles cellulaires de champs neuronaux dynamiques

Abstract : In the constant search for design going beyond the limits of the von Neumann architecture, non conventional computing offers various solutions like neuromorphic engineering and cellular computing. Like von Neumann who roughly reproduced brain structures to design computers architecture, neuromorphic engineering takes its inspiration directly from neurons and synapses using analog substratum. Cellular computing influence comes from natural substratum (chemistry, physic or biology) imposing locality of interactions from which organisation and computation emerge. Research on neural mechanisms was able to demonstrate several emergent properties of the neurons and synapses. One of them is the attractor dynamics described in different frameworks by Amari with the dynamic neural fields (DNF) and Amit and Zhang with the continuous attractor neural networks. These neural fields have various computing properties and are particularly relevant for spatial representations and early stages of visual cortex processing. They were used, for instance, in autonomous robotics, classification and clusterization. Similarly to many neuronal computing models, they are robust to noise and faults and thus are good candidates for noisy hardware computation models which would enable to keep up or surpass the Moore law. Indeed, transistor area reductions is leading to more and more noise and the relaxation of the approx. 0% fault during production and operation of integrated circuits would lead to tremendous savings. Furthermore, progress towards many-cores circuits with more and more cores leads to difficulties due to the centralised computation mode of usual parallel algorithms and their communication bottleneck. Cellular computing is the natural answer to these problems. Based on these different arguments, the goal of this thesis is to enable rich computations and applications of dynamic neural fields on hardware substratum with neuro-cellular models enabling a true locality, decentralization and scalability of the computations. This work is an attempt to go beyond von Neumann architectures by using cellular and neuronal computing principles. However, we will stay in the digital framework by exploring performances of proposed architectures on FPGA. Analog hardware like VLSI would also be very interesting but is not studied here. The main contributions of this work are : 1) Neuromorphic DNF computation ; 2) Local DNF computations with randomly spiking dynamic neural fields (RSDNF model) ; 3) Local and asynchronous DNF computations with cellular arrays of stochastic asynchronous spiking DNFs (CASAS-DNF model).
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Benoît Chappet de Vangel. Modèles cellulaires de champs neuronaux dynamiques. Réseau de neurones [cs.NE]. Université de Lorraine, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LORR0194⟩. ⟨tel-01482251v2⟩

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