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Formation des pseudo-bulbes dans les galaxies spirales locales de masse intermédiaire via des fusions majeures riches en gaz

Abstract : Bulges are present in almost 80% of nearby spiral galaxies of intermediate mass. Spiral galaxies represent about 70% of the intermediate-mass galaxies (typically with a mass between 2 × 10^10 and 10^11 solar masses) in the local Universe. While classical bulges have been associated to the result of major mergers, pseudo-bulges have been rather associated to secular evolution. However, the cosmological ΛCDM model predicts a hierarchical growth of galaxies via mergers while pseudo-bulges are found in > 50% of large nearby spiral galaxies. The aim of this thesis is to verify if we can build pseudo-bulges with gas-rich major mergers. The first part of this thesis is devoted to the presentation of the subject and the state of the art on the formation and evolution of galactic bulges.The second part of this thesis is focusing on the methodology developped to analyse bulges of spiral galaxies and understand their formation. The thesis has two axes of study, an observational part with the analysis of two complete samples of local spiral galaxies of intermediate mass to determine the proportion of pseudo-bulges in these samples and to have a reliable reference. Another part, which is the core of the study, is dedicated to the analysis of nume- rical simulations of gas-rich major mergers done with a N-body / SPH code (GADGET2). The aim is to reproduce this type of galaxy and to study their properties thanks to a bulge + disk decomposition.In the third part, I show that, within the limits given by the simulations, we can reproduce spiral galaxies with pseudo-bulges via gas-rich major mergers. This thesis propose a new scenario of pseudo-bulge formation thanks to the formation of a bar, which bring gas into the central parts. In addition, most of the observed structures, such as bars, rings or double-disks, are reproduced in the simulations. The different parameters of simulations has been then modified (gas fraction, mass ratio, mass of progenitors, feedback, gas extension, pericenter) to explore their impact on the results. We found that the disparities on Sersic index and B/T ratio comes as much from the difference between orbits as from between initial physical parameters chosen for simulations but we can still extract some trends. For instance, I show that the higher the gas fraction of the progenitors, the lower the Sersic index and the B/T ratio, the more the number of bars and their size increases.
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Tabatha Sauvaget. Formation des pseudo-bulbes dans les galaxies spirales locales de masse intermédiaire via des fusions majeures riches en gaz. Astrophysique [astro-ph]. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PSLEO012⟩. ⟨tel-01891644⟩

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