, Which interestingly is one of the first books written for children to mention the war

P. Pearce and . Tom's-midnight-garden, , 1958.

A. Garner, The Weirdstone of Brisingamen, 1960.

R. Dahl, J. The-giant, and . Peach, , 1961.

R. Dahl, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, 1964.

R. Dahl, The BFG, 1982.

R. Dahl, The Witches, 1985.

R. Dahl and M. , , 1988.

U. Guin, The Earthsea Quartet, 1993.

. Barton, Harry-Potter and the Half-Crazed Bureaucracy, p.1525

A. Baltru?aitis,

. Wolosky, The Riddles of Harry Potter, p.35

. Orwell,

R. Seelinger and T. , The Harry Potter Novels as a Test Case for Adolescent Literature, vol.35, p.475, 2001.

, See Supra IV. A. 2. Advertising and Parody

M. Fenske, Monsters and Magicians, p.283

P. Nikolajeva, Voice and Subjectivity in Literature for Young Readers, p.14

. Hunt, Children's Literature, p.11

, dans tous les pays, la première étape de la littérature d'enfance et de jeunesse, La littérature de jeunesse, itinéraires d'hier à aujourd'hui, p.12, 2008.

P. Dendle, This parallel also occurs in the use of dialect, as some readers surely noticed: how, for instance, the informal diction of Winky, whose patois frequently sounds like an uneducated Black American slave of the antebellum south, as when Winky wails, Monsters, Creatures, and Pets at Hogwarts. Animal Stewardship in the World of Harry Potter, vol.165

C. , Hermione and the House-Elves: The Literary and Historical Contexts of J. K. Rowling's antislavery Campaign, p.103

. Horne, Harry and the Other: Answering the Race Question in J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter, pp.80-81

C. See and . Mulliez, Les langages de J. K. Rowling," diss, vol.4, pp.197-199, 2009.

. Ibid, Werewolf Capture Unit" (Beasts, xiii) which lead us to understand that, just like Muggleborns, their personal information is recorded 151 and they are even captured. The theme of

, Professor Snape's essay in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban paints a grim picture of

P. Nel and J. K. , Rowling's Harry Potter Novels, A Reader's Guide, Continuum, p.15, 2001.

. Fraser, An Interview with J. K. Rowling, p.22

M. Fenske, Monsters and Magicians, p.282

. Lipi?ska, The Xenophobic World of Wizards: Why Are They Afraid of the "Other"?" in Patterson, p.121

. Green, The Ministry, as a result, keeps records of all known werewolves, forcing sufferers of lycanthropy to register knowing full well it means they will be discriminated against at will, Revealing Discrimination: Social Hierarchy and the Exclusion/Enslavement of the Other in the Harry Potter Novels, 2016.

P. , Forbidden Forest, Enchanted Castle: Arthurian Spaces in the Harry Potter Novels, p.98

K. Howe, Penguin Books, 2014) 6. The second date mentioned by Howe is noteworthy as it corresponds, more or less, to one of Rowling's historical creations: "wizards drew further and further apart from their non-magical brethen, culminating with the institution of the International Statute of Wizarding Secrecy in 1689, when wizardkind voluntarily went underground, The Penguin Book of Witches, pp.13-14

, A sixteenth-century Swiss physician who also dabbled in non-scientific research such as alchemy and astrology

, A sixteenth-century German physician, who, like Paracelsus, also researched more occult branches of science

T. Hallett, H. , and J. K. Rowling, The Way of the Wizarding World: Harry Potter and the Magical Bildungsroman, p.43

M. Fenske, Monsters and Magicians, p.174

, Auberge Nicolas Flamel is the oldest house left in Paris

. Bridger, The Spirituality of Potterworld, 14-15. incriminate others, and granted clemency when he does so) provides a protracted political pun: witches and wizards conducting a witch-hunt, p.200

, 201 The next two trials that Harry witnesses also bear marks of a dystopian regime

, The jury will please raise their hands [?]." (HP4, 30, 515). where Death Eaters, or potential Death Eaters, are judged in under five minutes. What is more, as Aaron Schwabach underlined, Buckbeak seems to receive a longer and fairer trial than most potential Azkaban-nominees: "The trial of Buckbeak forms a subplot running through the third novel; Buckbeak, an animal, seems to receive far more in the way of due process than the humans we see sent to Azkaban, p.202

, Buckbeak receives both a trial and an appeal, something that none of the prisoners sent to Azkaban for life ever receive

, We have people clapping at Bagman's and the Death Eater's judgements "Many of the witches and wizards around the walls began to clap." (HP4, 30, 515) and "The crowd around the walls began to clap as it had for Bagman, their faces full of savage triumph, Moreover, the crowds who attends the trials display their emotions in an ostentatious way

A. Schwabach, On assiste à un interrogatoire mené par Dolorès Ombrage ; une femme est soupçonnée de s'être fait passer frauduleusement pour une sorcière. Aucune de ses réponses n'est prise en compte ; aucune preuve n'est examinée ; l'accusée est condamnée d'avance. La séquence fait allusion aux procès truqués qui jalonnent l'histoire du XXe siècle. Par une cruelle ironie, les procédés maccarthystes de la chasse aux sorcières sont retournés, Harry Potter and the Unforgivable Curses: Norm-formation, Inconsistency, and the Rule of Law in the Wizarding World, vol.11, 2005.

. Orwell, , vol.173

. Ibid, , vol.286

. Schwabach, from being an innocent (and invisible) witness to being accused and tried because of magic that he only did in self-defence, Harry Potter and the Unforgivable Curses: Norm-formation, Inconsistency, and the Rule of Law in the Wizarding World, 2017.

. Harry, 206 As we saw in the previous trials the crowd was quite rowdy and this is the case both in K.'s trial and Harry's. In K.'s case we have occurrences such as "Immediately the muttering grew stronger" 207 and "A burst of applause followed, once more from the right side of the hall, 's trial and one of the most famous trials in the dystopian literary world, K.'s, in Kafka's book which bears the fitting name of The Trial

, The repetition of the expression "as far as he could see" is somewhat striking too in these two depictions because it focuses on the characters' limited perceptions during their trials. Moreover, nothing of what Harry or K. utter seems to carry any real weight, p.210

, Rowling weaves the weft of her narrative into the warp of her literary predecessor, thus creating a text which subconsciously plunges the reader back into the dystopian and labyrinthine world of The Trial. This stratagem creates a multilayered text which mingles Rowling's inventions with those of a dystopian novel. As spine-chilling as these trials are, By referring back to Kafka's work

F. Kafka, The Trial, p.42, 1925.

. Ibid,

. Ibid,

. Ibid, , p.51

, The Trial the washerwoman disturbs the proceedings twice, in a way that she claims to be an advantage for K.'s trial

V. Yeah, Chamber of Secrets, in fact he's exactly what I've said before. He takes what he perceives to be a defect in himself, in other words the non-purity of his blood, and he projects it onto others. It's like Hitler and the Aryan ideal, to which he did not conform at all, himself. And so Voldemort is doing this also. He takes his own inferiority, the second book, p.224

, Hannah Arendt's description of Hitler's first rise to power also corresponds to

, Voldemort's creation of his own support group, the Death Eaters. Arendt's depiction of the early days of the Nazi movement are indeed strongly reminiscent of Voldemort's rise

P. Hollindale, Ideology and the Children's Book, Mail.scu, 2017.

, CBS Newsworld: Hot Type. J. K. Rowling Interview, 2000.

. Taija, Is Desire beneficial or Harmful in the Harry Potter Series? In Heilman, ed. Critical Perspectives on Harry Potter, 2009, 71. in the series, and particularly so in the last two volumes

, 228 The references to "Battles" (HP8, I, 12 and HP8, I, 4) and "Wars" (HP5, 27, 532 and HP5, 38) set the scene for the reader to equate

. Harry, Did you think you'd be back to Mummy by Christmas?" (HP7, 15, 252) evince a strong World War I feeling. 229 The atmosphere of terror also harkens back to darker war-days as unexplained disappearances and horrific murders increase in number: "and someone called Octavius Pepper has vanished ? oh, and how horrible, a nine-year-old boy has been arrested for trying to kill his grandparents, they think he was under the Imperius Curse ?, 's plight with that of WWI and WWII soldiers but other details also point in that direction. The intermeshing of quotes such as

, The ambiance for the reader is one of constant uncertainty and terror as many secondary (as well as main) characters disappear, are tortured, and even killed. In a 2005 interview Rowling admitted that her novel tied in with the posttwin-tower and London underground terrorist attacks even though this had not been initially planned: I've never thought, That was the reading until the 7th of July, p.230

, What is striking here is that even though Rowling was trying to recreate twentieth century horrors, her text could be understood through the twenty-first century prism of

. Wolosky, The Riddles of Harry Potter, pp.37-38

, August 1914 thought that they would be back home for Christmas

, Leaky Cauldron Interview, vol.16, 2005.

D. Eck, The use of the word "bercent" instead of "blessent" was used to refer to the imminent Normandy landing. One must note that the use of this mis-quote is debated among historians as two contradictory sources exist on this matter, one where one hears "blessent mon coeur" and another "bercent mon coeur, La guerre des ondes, vol.127, 2017.

, This is the website for the "Centre d'histoire de la résistance et de la déportation, 2017.

R. Char, Fureur et mystère, Gallimard, 2016) 8 in the preface by Yves Berger, 1967.

, See also Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 1. Dir. David Yates. Warner Bros Pictures

. See,

, Interestingly, Voldemort, Rowling's arch-villain is the product of a grim British institution. In Rowling's case the bridge between fiction and reality is readily crossed, 2017.

J. Rankin, Harry Potter illustrated editions spell rising sales for Bloomsbury, The Guardian, 2015.

A. Flood, Harry Potter and the Cursed Child Script Breaks Sales Records, The Guardian, 2016.

. Shavit, Poetics of Children's Literature, p.80

S. Coetzee and . Shores, See introduction for the full quotes. Reference Books: ? Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, vol.10, 1997.

, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. London: Bloomsbury, 1998.

, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. London: Bloomsbury, 1999.

, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. London: Bloomsbury, 2000.

, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, 2003.

, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, 2007.

, Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find them. London: Bloomsbury, 2001.

, Tales of Beedle the Bard. London: Bloomsbury, 2008.

J. K. Rowling, J. Thorne, and J. Tiffany, Theoretical Readings: Critical theory: ? Abrams, Meyer Howard. The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition, 1953.

, Abrams's famous work looks at two literary traditions: in the first one (from Plato to the eighteenth century) the mind is said to mirror nature, whereas in the second (from the romantics onwards) the mind is a lamp which projects light onto the world. Abrams also puts into place the triangle of Art Criticism

?. Austin and J. Langshaw, How to do Things with Words, 1975.

, Austin's best-known book is a collection of his lectures given in 1955 in Harvard

, This collection of essays on works commonly considered under the heading 'popular fiction' spans the nineteenth to the twenty-first century and features chapters on science fiction, crime writing, romance, adventure stories, horror, graphic novels and children's literature. Of particular interest for the Potter studies is chapter eight, Alternative Worlds: Popular Fiction (Not Only) for Children' by Lena Steveker, which looks at The Hobbit and Harry Potter, 2015.

?. Bourdieu and P. , Sur la télévision, Raisons d'Agir, 2008.

, Pierre Bourdieu explicates the different mechanisms behind journalism and, more specifically television journalism. He looks at censure and how this is subconsciously put into place through pre-digested speech, very short time-slots for important news versus hours dedicated to sports

?. Coetzee and J. Maxwell, Strange Shores, Literary Essays, 1986.

, Coetzee's collection of twenty-six essays discuss specific books (for example Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe), authors (Doris Lessing, Kafka), and literature in general. The essay which was most interesting for our study was the first one entitled "What Is a Classic?, 1973.

, Frye's ground-breaking work focuses on four areas: historical, ethical, archetypal and rhetorical criticism. ? Graham, Allen. Intertextuality, 2000.

, Graham Allen's study retraces the key moments in the creation of the notion of 'intertextuality.' From Saussure, Bakhtin, Kristeva, Barthes, all the way to Genette and Riffaterre, this is a comprehensive work on the history of the term. The last chapters go beyond this traditional research and sound the depths of

L. Hopkins, . Screening-the-gothic, and . Austin, publication Lisa Hopkins examines the film adaptation of Gothic texts, from Shakespeare's Hamlet all the way to Harry Potter and The Lord of the Rings. This study analyses the Gothicizing of certain books through the film medium, and, on the other hand, the removing of the Gothic in recent adaptations of typical Gothic texts such as Frankenstein, 2005.

?. Hutcheon, L. , and O. Siobhan, In the second edition of A Theory of Adaptation Hutcheon-now joined by O'Flynn-looks at how works of art have moved from one medium to another, be it from books to film or film to video-game or internet site etc, 2006.

?. Hutcheon and L. , Narcissistic Narrative. The Metafictional Paradox, 1980.

, Hutcheon's seminal work examines texts which reflect on themselves, that is to say which are self-reflexive. She starts by introducing the typology of such texts, and then moves on to the implications of such narcissistic texts as well as the narrative artifices which they often use (such as parody, allegory and mise en abyme). Hutcheon's work also includes analyses of specific novels or genres as The French Lieutenant's Woman, detective novels and fantasy

, this publication Hutcheon continues on the road established in Narcissistic Narrative and concentrates more specifically on history and art, 1999.

, The Politics of Postmodernism. 1989. London and New York: Routledge, 1995.

, Hutcheon's work focuses on the representation of the postmodern, be it through photography or fiction, and how postmodernism has challenged such assumptions as History or narrative

. Pellauer and . Chicago, , 1986.

?. Ronen and R. , Possible Worlds in Literary Theory, 1994.

, Ruth Ronen's study uses the philosophical concept of possible worlds and applies it to fiction. Our study focused mostly on her last chapter

?. Prucha and F. Paul, This book brings together four essays on Indian history: Paternalism, Dependency, Indian Rights and SelfDetermination. Narratology: ? Bacchilega, Cristina. Postmodern Fairy-Tales. Gender and Narrative Strategies, 1985.

, Cristina Bacchilega looks at postmodern re-writings of fairy-tales, from Atwood's "Bluebeard's Egg" to the TV-series Beauty and the Beast in order to analyse the place of women

?. Bakhtin and M. , Epic and Novel: Towards a Methodology for the Study of the Novel, Forms of Time and of the Chronotope in the Novel: Notes toward a Historical Poetics" and "Discourse in the Novel, 1981.

R. Barthes and . Le-degré-zéro-de-l'écriture, Paris: Seuil, 1972. In his first book Barthes explains his distinction between 'writing', 'style' and 'language.' The author's 'language' is the collective and archaic language of a given era whereas his 'style' is personal, 1953.

, Barthes's seminal work focuses on one of Balzac's short stories Sarrazine (which is included in the book)

, The work is a textual analysis which deciphers this short story in order to bring to light some of the key elements of texts in general

?. Texte, , 1973.

, Barthes's short aphorisms on the pleasure and bliss ('jouissance') of reading bring the reader to a better understanding of how a text is read and appreciated

?. -. Le-bruissement-de-la-langue, This work is a collection of more than fifty essays from Barthes. For this work we focused on the essay entitled "The reality effect" ("L'effet de réel") in which Barthes explains how small fictional details (such as Flaubert's mention of a barometer) create a reality effect for the reader, 1984.

, The Rustle of Language, 1989.

A. Compagnon, La Seconde main ou le travail de la citation. Paris: Seuil, 1979. In his published PhD thesis Antoine Compagnon walks us through the theory and the history of quotations

?. Eco and U. , The Role of the Reader: Explorations in the Semiotics of Texts, 1979.

, Eco's collection of nine essays analyses the notions of model reader as well as 'open' and 'closed' texts. Eco does not limit himself to texts but also studies musical compositions and aesthetic theory

G. Genette, . Figure, and . Iii, Paris: Seuil, 1972. In his seminal work Genette establishes a classification for order, time, frequency, mode and voice in literature. This organisation of these categories is now considered as the groundwork for all literary analysis

?. -. Palimpsestes, In his work Genette expounds the notion of 'transtextuality', that is to say the relations between one text and another. Through detailed analyses of texts he defines different relations such as parody, pastiche, forgery, La littérature au second degré. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1982.

?. -. Seuils and . Paris, In this work Genette analyses in depth the text which surrounds the novel per say. From the title of the book to chapter headings all the way down to epigraphs, prefaces, notes etc, Editions du Seuil, 1987.

?. Iser and W. , This seminal work stems from Iser's first collection of essays entitled Der implizite Leser which he published in German in 1972. Iser's aim in this book is to apply the theory that he has been developing (that Harrison's work retraces the history of forests through literary and historical texts, The Implied Reader. Patterns of Communication in Prose Fiction from Bunyan to Beckett. Baltimore and London, 1974.

T. Walden, . Shakespeare, and . The-grimm-brothers, His analysis of the texts enable us to understand how forests have been percieved in the last five centuries

?. Bettelheim and B. , St Ives: Penguin, 1991. In his seminal work Bruno Bettelheim explores folk fairy-tales with a psychoanalytical perspective in order to understand what happens to children when they read or re, 1975.

?. Briggs, . Julia, D. Butts, . Grenby, and O. Matthew, This work presents a study of children's books which were popular, 2008.

?. Cartellier-veuillen and É. , From traditional dystopias to teenage dystopias: Harry Potter as a bridge between two cultures, La Clé des Langues, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01314174

, This article purposes to demonstrate the role that the Harry Potter series has played in the emerging genre of teenage dystopias

?. Cazanave, C. Houssais, and Y. , This work looks at how the medieval spark is being reignited in contemporary children's literature. One of the articles deals specifically with the medieval aspects in Harry Potter, 2011.

. Chambers, . Nancy, and . Ed, The Signal Approach to Children's books. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1980.

, A compendium of articles on children's literature by writers and critics interwoven with interviews with writers of children's books

?. Douglas and V. , Les récits britanniques pour la jeunesse dans l'entre-deux-guerres : entre nostalgie et modernité, littérarité et production de masse, 2013.
DOI : 10.4000/strenae.1061

URL : https://doi.org/10.4000/strenae.1061

, article Virginie Douglas explores the novels written for children between the first and the second world war, a period which corresponds to a relative lull between the two Golden Ages of children's Literature. Haunting the Borders, 2008.

. Lerer and . Seth, Children's Literature. A Reader's History from Aesop to Harry Potter, 2008.

, Lerer's work gives a comprehensive and historical overview of Western children's literature. Lerer analyses all of the classical works in order to highlight why they resonate so well with child-readers

?. Lesnik-oberstein and K. , This compendium of articles on children's literature was written with the aim of affirming the rightful place of children's literature criticism and explaining the historiographical evolutions behind this branch of research, Chapter 8 deals more particularly with Harry Potter and intertextuality, 2004.

C. S. Lewis, On Three Ways of Writing for Children, 1952.

, Lewis's essay deals with the three ways that a writer can write for children: 1. writing for a particular child in mind, 2. writing under compulsion (which are both considered as "good" ways) and 3. writing down to child, which he considers as "bad

?. Lockhead and M. , The Renaissance of Wonder in Children's Literature. Edinburgh: Canongate, 1977.

.. S. Lewis and T. , Marion Lockhead gives a historical overview of the writers who have dealt with wonder in their novels published for children. She analyses the works of George MacDonald

, create a theoretical ground for children's literature. Chapter one entitled "Harry Potter and the Secrets of Children's Literature" deals specifically with the seven Harry Potters

?. O'keefe and D. Readers-in-wonderland, The Liberating Worlds of Fantasy Fiction

O. Deborah, Keefe writes out a 20 th century history of fantasy fiction for children, explaining why Harry Potter reached the success that it has today

?. Ray and M. , Dystopian Children's Literature: A Darker Spin on an Established Genre, Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2013 Book of the Year, 2013.

, Michael Ray covers the rise of children's and young adult literature, especially focusing on the darker books which were published in the late 2000s, such as The Hunger Games and Harry Potter

?. Rose and J. , The Case of Peter Pan or the Impossibility of Children's Fiction, 1984.

H. Kong, , 1994.

, The Return of Peter Pan", to her work on the definition of children's literature. Rose argues for the impossibility of children's literature as the adult holds too dear a role in the writing, publishing, giving and reading of such material

?. Shavit and Z. , Poetics of Children's Literature. London: The University of Georgia Press, 1986.

, Shavit evaluates the place of children's literature within the realm of classical literature and examines how children's literature has gone from an overlooked genre to one which is important in literary studies

?. Stephens and J. , Language and Ideology in Children's Fiction, 1992.

, John Stephens analyses language in children's literature as a vector for the author's and / or society's ideology through the prism of narrative theory-especially reader-response theory-critical linguistics, intertextuality, society and historical fiction

?. Townsend and J. Rowe, One of the first complete histories of children's literature to be published in Great-Britain, 1965.

?. Watson and . Victor, The Cambridge Guide to Children's Books in English, 2001.

, Watson's guide to children's books is organised in dictionary entries which tackle authors, genres, books, nursery rhymes, themes, publishing houses and characters linked to children

?. Zipes and J. , Through a negative view of children's literature as a whole, Jack Zipes develops some interesting arguments and his work presents a chapter, 2001.

, This book borrows many references from Sean Smith's work but adds a considerable number of facts about the historical and literary background in which, J. K. Rowling grew up, 2003.

M. J. Shapiro and . Rowling, The Wizard behind Harry Potter

. Griffin, Even though this is a very laid back biography, written by a free-lance journalist, it does give some interesting insights into Rowling's life, 2004.

. Smith, . J. Sean, . Rowling, and . Biography, The Genius behind Harry Potter. London: Michael O'Mara Books, 2001.

, A complete biography of the author's life with many insightful literary analyses of her work, 2003.

, Giselle Liza Anatol's collection of well-furnished articles focuses on the theories of child development, literary influences and history, as well as morality, social values and power

, Organised around the four Hogwarts houses the articles published in this work deal with varied philosophical notions such as courage, psychology, feminism, religion, science, discrimination, evil, metaphysics and fate, Harry Potter and Philosophy: If Aristotle Ran Hogwarts, 2004.

, In their 2011 collection of scholarly articles Berndt and Steveker look at the creation of heroism, at the formation of the hero, and at the hero's friends and foes, Heroism in the Harry Potter Series. Surrey: Ashgate, 2011.

?. Bouix, Christopher (textes réunis et présentés par). Hocus Pocus. À l'école des sorciers en Grèce et à Rome, Les Belles Lettres, 2012.

?. Donelli, O. Connell, and S. , Harry Potter and the Order of the Metatext: a Study of Nonfiction Fan Compositions and Disciplinary Writing, 2015.

O. Shevaun-donelli, Connell analyses more than 2,000 non-fictional fan compositions in her PhD dissertation to show how academic discourse aimed at non-academic audiences have evolved towards a hybrid genre wedged in between academia and fandom

?. Eccleshare and J. , Written after Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire was published, Julia Eccleshare's work focuses on the creation of a literary phenomenon, the shifts from book one to four, the intertextual links with Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings as well as on society, 2002.

C. Fenske and . Muggles, Monsters and Magicians: A Literary Analysis of the Harry Potter Series, 2008.

, Claudia Fenske's re-writing of her thesis aptly lists the origins of the characters' names, locations and monsters. The last part on the ideology

?. Fernandez and . Irène, Du Seigneur des anneaux à Harry Potter: une littérature en quête de sens, Editions Philippe Rey, 2012.

, Irène Fernandez defends fantasy literature (which she calls "faery") by showing how The Lord of the Rings, The Chronicles of Narnia, Harry Potter and Twilight are not simply written as secondary or childish literature but are able to stand their own ground

?. Granger and J. , How Harry Cast his Spell: the true meaning behind the mania for

, This is the revised version of a book John Granger published in 2002 under the title The Hidden Key to Harry Potter: Understanding the Meaning, Genius, and Popularity of Joanne Rowling's Harry Potter Novels and re-published in 2006 under a new title: Looking For God in Harry Potter. This third publication builds on what Granger had already published and gives a fuller understanding of the links between Harry Potter and Christianity. One must point out that even though Granger is a Professor, he is a Professor of theology and that these books do not follow a literary academic position but have a religious stance. ? Groves, Rowling's bestselling books. Carol Spring, IL: Tyndale House, 2008.

, Beatrice Groves looks through the literary sources which make up the canvas of the Potter books focusing specifically on Greek myths

?. Grunelius and S. , Harry Potter: the Story of a Global Business Phenomenon, 2008.

, Susan Grunelius describes the Harry Potter books through the prism of business: she starts by describing its business success (numbers of copies sold throughout the years and amount of money made) and then goes on to theorise how the books have become a successful product and brand

. Gupta, . Suman, H. Re-reading, and . Potter, Reading Re-reading Harry Potter) to his previous tome which already spanned a text-to-world approach, a study of allusions within Harry Potter and a description of the servant / slave identity of the house-elves, 2003.

?. Hallett and C. Whitney, This collection of essays focuses on why the Harry Potter books are worthy of academia and deals with language, literature, fantasy, classical myths and legends as well as ideological, cultural and social concepts, Studies in Harry Potter: Applying Academic Methods to a Popular Text, 2005.

?. Hallett, C. Whitney, P. J. Huey, and . Rowling, , 2012.

H. &. Hallett, New Casebooks work offers a variety of scholarly articles on Harry Potter ranging from the analysis of food in the novels to Fairy-Tales

, This first edition of Elizabeth Heilman's books brings together articles from the first Harry Potter scholars in order to discuss the books from the perspective of cultural studies, 2003.

, This is the second edition of Elizabeth Heilman's book which only reprints three of the original articles. All the other articles are new, and a fourth section was added on the media, 2009.

J. Killinger, D. The-life, H. Resurrection, . Potter, and G. Macon, analyses in this collection of scholarly articles make Whited's book one of the cornerstones of Potter studies. The articles cover heroism, myth, education, intertextuality (with one article focusing particularly on Tom Brown), sociology, authority, morality, gender issues, 2009.

?. Wolosky and S. , Looking at the literary value of Rowling's text, Shira Wolosky offers a very complete analysis of the Potter words which she deciphers throughout her work, 2010.

?. Allen and B. , A World of Wizards, The New Leader, vol.82, pp.13-14, 1999.

, Allen's book review points to many intertextual references, especially in the realm of children's literature

?. Arden, . Heather, and K. Lorenz, The Harry Potter stories and French Arthurian romance, Arthuriana, vol.13, pp.54-68, 2003.

, This article points to the links between Harry Potter and the medieval romance, focusing specifically on the tales of Arthur, Merlin, as well as the Percival myth

?. Barton and H. Benjamin, Harry-Potter and the Half-Crazed Bureaucracy, Michigan Law Review, vol.104, issue.6, pp.1523-1538, 2006.

, Benjamin Barton looks at the Harry Potter books through the eyes of the law, depicting how terrifyingly the Ministry of Magic and law enforcement work in the series and underlines the parallels between the bureaucracy depicted in the novels and the bureaucratic systems in the USA

?. Berman and L. , Dragons and Serpents in J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series: are they evil?, Mythlore, vol.27, pp.45-65, 2008.

, Berman's article focuses on the representation of serpents and dragons in Harry Potter. The article gives an in-depth study of the mythological history of these creatures from Greek myths to Tolkien and analyses how Rowling has applied this past to her story

?. Billone and A. Christine, The Boy Who Lived: From Carroll's Alice and Barrie's Peter Pan to Rowling's Harry Potter, Children's Literature, vol.32, pp.178-202, 2004.

, Billone's article offers a close reading between Peter Pan, Alice and Harry Potter and finishes with a feminist reading of these novels

?. Black and S. , The magic of Harry Potter: Symbols and heroes of fantasy, vol.34, pp.237-247, 2003.

, Sharon Black bases her reading of Harry Potter on Bruno Bettelheim's The Uses of Enchantment and Joseph Campbell's The Hero with a Thousand Faces

?. Bloom and H. , Can 35 Million Book Buyers Be Wrong? Yes, Wall Street Journal, issue.11

, Bloom's 2000 article (which only studies the first novel) heralded the brief age of Harry Potter negative criticism. Many of Bloom's main points in his article are not relevant to the six later volumes and have been refuted by literary scholars

?. Brown and S. , Harry Potter and the Marketing Mystery: A Review and Critical Assessment of the Harry Potter Books, Journal of Marketing, vol.66, issue.1, pp.126-130, 2002.

, Stephen Brown looks into the magic behind the Harry Potter sales as well as the marketing and publicity at work within the novels

A. S. Byatt, Harry Potter and the Childish Adult, The New York Times, 2003.

, Byatt explains the success of the Potter novels through mere nostalgia and criticises both Rowling's magical world as bad recycling of classics, and cultural studies in general for trying to analyse works such as Harry Potter. The elements brought forth in this article have since been undermined by literary critics

?. Cantrell and K. Sarah, I solemnly swear I am up to no good' Foucault's Heterotopias and Deleuze's Any-Spaces-Whatever in J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter Series, Children's Literature, vol.39, pp.195-212, 2011.

, Cantrell's article offers a philosophical insight into the spaces of Harry Potter. Thanks to Foucault and Deleuze's critical apparatus Cantrell analyses the places (Hogwarts, 12 Grimmauld Place, the tent, the Room of Requirements) as liminal spaces which can be seen as heterotopias or espace quelconque

?. Chevalier and N. , The liberty tree and the whomping willow: Political justice, magical science, and Harry Potter, The Lion and the Unicorn, vol.29, pp.397-415, 2005.

, Noel Chevalier's article focuses on the links between Harry Potter, culture and politics. The second part of the study also looks at the books through Godwin's theories of political justice

?. Deavel, C. Jack, D. Deavel, and . Paul, Characters, Choice and Harry Potter, Logos, vol.5, pp.49-64, 2002.

, Deavel and Deavel analyse the characters' relationship to choice through the notions of fate and destiny

?. Dempster, . Steve, A. Oliver, J. Sunderland, and J. Thistlethwaite, What has

, Harry Potter Done for Me? Children's Reflections on their 'Potter Experience', pp.267-282, 2016.

, This article looks at literary acquisition and focuses on children who have read at least one Harry Potter book. The research concludes that these particular novels helped them develop reading and writing skills. ? Dendle, Peter, Children's Literature, vol.36, pp.410-425, 2011.

, This singular article focuses on cryptozoology, that is to say the study of unconfirmed creatures (such as unicorns or Bigfoot) as well as instances of the paranormal in the Harry Potter novels

?. Doniger and W. , Can You Spot the Source, London Review of Books, 2000.

, Wendy Doniger discusses the importance of the Harry Potter story within the framework of myths and literary references from around the world in her review of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban

?. Fife and E. , Wise Warriors in Tolkien, Lewis and Rowling, pp.147-162, 2006.

, Ernelle Fife studies the figure of the female wise warrior and gender roles in Rowling's Harry Potter, Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings and Lewis's Till We Have Faces. She concludes by pointing out that the female warriors are often forgotten by readers and critics but that a close study reveals that they are often the wisest warriors

?. Green and M. Amy, Interior/Exterior in the Harry Potter Series: Duality Expressed in Sirius Black and Remus Lupin, Papers on Language and Literature, vol.44, pp.87-108, 2008.

, Amy Green looks at how Black's and Lupin's transformations (into a dog and a werewolf) bring to the forefront their hidden character traits and how this can be used to better interpret their characters

, Revealing Discrimination: Social Hierarchy and the Exclusion/Enslavement of the Other in the Harry Potter Novels, The Looking Glass: new perspectives on children's literature, vol.13, 2009.

, This article focuses on the magical beings in Harry Potter who are either non-wizards or part-wizards and looks at how they are treated within the narrative. Green points to many parallels which can be made between how they are treated in Rowling's work and how our society has treated and treats Native Americans, slaves, colonized people, children and people who suffer from particular diseases such as AIDS

?. Horne and J. C. , Harry and the Other: Answering the Race Question in

H. Potter, The Lion and the Unicorn, vol.34, pp.76-104, 2010.

, Horne's very complete article looks at both racism and anti-racism as regards House-elves and goblins

?. Hutcheon and L. , Harry Potter and the Novice's Confession, vol.32, pp.169-179, 2008.

, Hutcheon here writes a mea culpa about the lateness of her discovery of children's literature and focuses on the literary value of this genre that she had ignored for the first part of her literary life

?. Laskari and I. , A comparison of war and violence in Harry Potter and The Hunger Games, The Looking Glass: new perspectives on children's literature, vol.17, 2014.

, Isabelle Laskari presents how Rowling and Collins depict violence and war in their novels. She shows how Rowling portrays war as having no lasting influence upon her characters as Harry, Ron and Hermione remain unscathed and relatively innocent as they never kill another character, whereas Katniss lives through the real horror of war: that is to say killing, something which traumatises both her and her surviving peers

?. Lathey and G. , The Travels of Harry: International Marketing and the Translation of J

K. , Rowling's Harry Potter Books, vol.29, pp.141-151, 2005.

, Gillian Lathey presents the conclusions of the 2003 CLISS seminar during their summer-school as regards the translations of the Harry Potter books. This article also offers interesting insights on Rowling's use of language

?. Lecercle and J. , Faut-il canoniser Harry Potter, La critique, le critique Rennes: Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2005.

J. , Lecercle's article focuses on the differences between canonical literature and the Harry Potter stories, and looks at how the novels fared in 2005 compared to other titles of the genre (be it fantasy or school stories)

?. Mills and A. , Harry Potter and the Terrors of the Toilet, vol.37, pp.1-13, 2006.

, Mills's article focuses looks at the Harry Potter episodes situated in the toilet in light of Kristeva's notion of the abject. She also uses Kristeva's theories to comment on the role of the Mirror of Erised in the series

?. Natov and R. , Harry Potter and the Extraordinariness of the Ordinary, The Lion and the Unicorn, vol.25, pp.310-327, 2001.

, Roni Natov explores Harry's "Everychild" aspect as he links the novels to different literary genres and tropes

?. Nel and P. , Is there a Text in this Advertising Campaign? Literature, Marketing and Harry Potter, The Lion and the Unicorn, vol.29, pp.236-267, 2005.

, After peeling back the marketing layers (for example the use of trademarks and copyrights in the Harry Potter merchandise) and proving that the text was highly popular even before the media and advertisers got their hands on it, Philip Nel takes us through some of Rowling's literary tours-de-force in the Harry Potter books. Nel focuses on Rowling's literary references from children's writers such as Dahl

?. Neumann and B. Iver, Pop goes Religion: Harry Potter meets Clifford Geetz, European Journal of Cultural Studies, vol.9, pp.81-100, 2006.

, Neumann's article looks at magic through the prism of religion as well as the historical works on witchcraft

?. Noel, -. Smith, and K. , Harry Potter's Oedipal Issues, Psychoanalytic Studies, vol.3, pp.199-207, 2001.

, Kelly Noel-Smith looks at the Freudian aspects of Rowling's tale, specifically phantasies, the Family Romance, and idealisation

?. Pennington and J. , From Elfland to Hogwarts, or the aesthetic trouble with Harry Potter, The Lion and the Unicorn, vol.26, pp.78-97, 2002.

, He states for example that the Harry Potters fail at being fantasy as they are too grounded in our every day world. The article quotes from The Lord of the Rings and The Earthsea Quartet in order to belittle the Harry Potters compared to their literary predecessors. The article concludes by stating that Rowling 's main aim was, John Pennington's article builds on Jack Zipe's work, by concentrating on the aspects he dislikes in the novels

?. Petrina and A. , Forbidden Forest, Enchanted Castle: Arthurian Spaces in the Harry Potter Novels, Mythlore, vol.93, pp.95-110, 2006.

, article Petrina deciphers the Arthurian references in the Harry Potter saga focusing on the liminal space of the forest, on the re-creation of the figure of the knight and on the depiction of Hogwarts castle as a re-writing of Arthurian castles, 2006.

. Pham-dinh, De Tom Brown à Harry Potter: pérennité et avatars du roman scolaire britannique, La Clé des Langues, 2009.

. Rose-may, Pham Dinh's article explores the school-story tradition in British literature for children showing its evolutions through time from Tom Brown's famous tale

?. Pugh, . Tison, and D. L. Wallace, Heteronormative Heroism and Queering the School Story in J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series, Children's Literature Association Quarterly, vol.31, issue.3, pp.260-281, 2006.

W. Pugh, s article belongs to the area of gender studies and looks at how this branch of research can be applied to Harry Potter. They focus specifically on heteronormative heroism and representations of masculinity in the text

?. Randall and J. , Wizard Words: The Literary, Latin and Lexical Origins of Harry Potter's Vocabulary, Verbatim, The Language Quarterly, vol.26, pp.1-7, 2001.

, Jessy Randall discusses the origin of Rowling's names and words in her article, pinpointing their literary ancestry or historical origins within our culture

?. Robertson and J. P. , What Happens to our Wishes: Magical Thinking in Harry Potter, Children's Literature Association Quarterly, vol.26, pp.198-211, 2002.

, Judith Robertson uses Freudian analysis to look at aspects of the Harry Potter novels such as childhood (especially through the Family Romance) as well as the Gothic with notions of the canny and uncanny

?. Schwabach and A. , Harry Potter and the Unforgivable Curses: Norm-formation, Inconsistency, and the Rule of Law in the Wizarding World, Roger Williams Law Review, vol.11, 2005.

, Accessed 21, 2017.

, As a Professor of Law at the Thomas Jefferson School of Law in California Aaron Schwabach analyses the

, He looks specifically at the three unforgivable curses in the series, that it to say control (imperio), torture (crucio) and death

?. Trites and R. Seelinger, The Harry Potter Novels as Test Case for Adolescent Literature, Style, vol.35, pp.472-485, 2001.

, Roberta Seelinger Trites looks at how Harry Potter is closer to adolescent literature than children's literature. Her article also focuses on surveillance and photography in the Potterverse

, The Uncanny in Children's Literature, Introduction. Children's Literature Association Quarterly, vol.26, p.162, 2001.

, In her introduction to the winter publication of ChLit's quarterly Roberta Seelinger Trites focuses on the gothic and uncanny elements in children's literature, especially in Harry Potter

?. Tucker and N. , Children's Literature in Education, vol.30, pp.221-234, 1999.

, Nicholas Tucker looks at the Harry Potter series success and identifies some of the key themes that have

?. Visser, . Irene, and L. Kaai, The Books That Lived: J. K. Rowling and the Magic of Storytelling, Brno Studies in English, vol.41, pp.195-212, 2015.

. Visser, article focuses on the notion of bestseller as regards Rowling's Potter novels as well as her adult books, The Casual Vacancy and The Cuckoo's Calling. This study looks at newspaper reviews for all books and compares them in order to try to identify what makes a bestseller

?. Washick and J. , Oliver Twisted: the origins of Lord Voldemort in the Dickensian orphan, The Looking Glass: new perspectives on children's literature, vol.13, 2009.

, James Washick looks into the links between the Harry Potter story and Oliver Twist, focusing specifically on the similarities between Voldemort's and Oliver's stories

?. Westman and K. E. , Perspective, Memory, and Moral Authority: The Legacy of Jane Austen in J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter, Children's Literature, vol.35, pp.145-165, 2007.

, Westman's comprehensive article on the links between Rowling and Austen leads us through the textual clues and reader-narrator relationships which make these novels great

?. Whited and A. Lana, McGonagall's Prophecy Fulfilled: The Harry Potter Critical Library, The Lion and the Unicorn, vol.27, pp.416-425, 2003.

, This article is a comprehensive overview of all articles and books written about Harry Potter before 2003. Even though most critical history of the novel post-dates this time it nonetheless remains an interesting read

?. Wilson and F. James, Harry Potter and the Cursed Child, Parts 1 And 2 by Jack Thorne (review), Theater Journal, vol.69, issue.1, pp.86-88, 2017.

, Wilson's review of the Harry Potter play sheds interesting light on the theatre production, commenting on staging, acting and audience reaction

?. Zimmerman and V. , Harry Potter and the Gift of Time, Children's Literature, vol.37, pp.194-215, 2009.

, Zimmerman's article looks at traces of the past, time-travel and the construction of identity in the Harry Potter novels, Press Articles: ? Acocella, vol.31, pp.74-78, 2000.

. Alder, .. Shawn, and J. K. Potter'-author, Rowling Opens Up About Books' Christian Imagery, 2007.

. Treneman, . &. Ann, . Rowling, and . Interview, Television Programs: ? British Broadcasting Company. Harry Potter and Me, BBC Christmas Special, 2000.

J. J. Runcie and . Rowling, A Year in the Life of. IWC Media for ITV, 2007.

?. Stahl and L. , 60 Minutes: Harry Potter, Interview with J. K. Rowling. CBS, 1999.

M. Vieira, interviewer) Harry Potter author J. K. Rowling gets personal. (Television broadcast) New York: MSNBC.com, 2007.

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J. C. Horne, , vol.338, pp.395-397

A. .. Horowitz,

. .. Groosham-grange, , vol.25, pp.111-115

K. .. Howe,

. , The Penguin Book of Witches

T. .. Hughes,

T. .. Brown's-schooldays, , vol.22, p.111

P. .. Hunt,

, An Introduction to Children's Literature, vol.45, p.416

, Children's Literature18, vol.20, p.416

. .. Literature, , vol.55, p.151

L. .. Hutcheon,

, A Poetics of Postmodernism, vol.299, p.403

.. .. Narcissistic-narrative, , vol.310, p.352

. .. The-politics-of-postmodernism, 298 "Harry Potter and the Novice's

&. .. Confession, , vol.30, p.297

L. Hutcheon, O. Flynn, and S. .. ,

. Ibbotson and .. .. Eva,

, The Secret of Platform 13, vol.110, p.315

L. .. Ingalls-wilder,

. , The Little House on the Prairie

J. Milner and .. .. ,

, Harry Potter à l'école des sciences morales et politiques, vol.161, p.425

J. .. Milton,

. .. Paradise-lost, , vol.1, pp.165-167

K. M. Moning,

.. .. Dark-fever, , vol.132, p.235

L. M. Montgomery,

A. Of-green and . Gables, , vol.5, p.61

R. Morris and .. .. Michael-john,

, The Function and Etymology of Proper Nouns in the work of, J.K. Rowling", vol.100, p.247

C. .. Mulliez,

, Les langages de J. K. Rowling", vol.14, p.387

J. .. Murphy,

, The Worst Witch, vol.24, p.119

R. .. Natov, , vol.58, p.334

C. .. Neal,

, The Gospel According to Harry Potter, p.157

. , What's a Christian to do with Harry Potter?, vol.102, p.156

P. .. Nel,

J. K. Rowling's-harry-potter-novels, Is there a Text in This Advertising Campaign?, vol.393, p.374

E. .. Nesbit,

. , The Five Children and It

T. Phoenix and . .. Carpet, , vol.5, p.72

I. B. Neumann, , vol.111, p.328

I. Nières-chevrel and J. .. Perrot,

, Dictionnaire du livre de jeunesse, vol.132, p.234

M. .. Nikolajeva,

. Power, , vol.364, p.418

J. .. Nimmo,

C. Bone, . The-time, and . .. Twister, , p.132

C. Midnight and . .. Bone,

K. .. Noel-smith,

J. C. Nott and G. R. Gliddon,

. .. Types-of-mankind,

O. O'brien and R. .. ,

D. .. O'keefe,

. .. Readers-in-wonderland,

G. .. Orwell,

. .. Ovid,

. .. Metamorphoses, , vol.142, pp.144-147

F. .. Pascal,

. .. Sweet-valley-high, , vol.25, p.126

D. .. Patterson,

H. Potter, s World Wide Influence, vol.383, p.393

P. .. Pearce,

. .. Tom's-midnight-garden, , vol.24, p.132

J. Pennington, , vol.13, p.347

A. .. Petrina, , vol.128, p.407

P. Dinh and . .. Rose-may, , vol.3, p.365

S. .. Plath,

.. .. Selected-poems,

. .. The-bell-jar,

. .. Plato,

.. .. The-republic,

. Pleindoux-legrand and .. .. Daphné,

, Harry Potter : récit d'apprentissage et quête initiatique, vol.14, p.204

B. .. Potter,

A. Pratkanis and E. .. Aronson,

V. .. Propp,

. .. Morphology-of-the-folktale, , p.155

F. P. Prucha,

, The Indians in American Society, vol.398

T. .. Pugh, , vol.109, p.391

P. .. Pullman,

. .. Northern-lights, , vol.25, p.428

A. .. Radcliffe,

J. Randall, , vol.105, p.375

O. .. Rank,

D. Juan and . .. Le-double, , vol.206, p.212

P. .. Ricoeur,

.. .. Temps,

J. P. Robertson, , vol.242, p.245

R. .. Ronen,

, Possible Worlds in Literary Theory, p.408

J. .. Rose,

, The Case of Peter Pan, vol.19, p.319

J. K. Rowling,

, Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, vol.435, p.436

, HP1-Harry Potter and the Philosopher's

. .. Stone, , vol.30, p.433, 289291.

H. Potter and . .. Secrets, , vol.73, p.418, 196198.

, HP3-Harry Potter and the Prisoner of

. .. Azkaban, , vol.39, p.428

, HP4-Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire

H. Potter and . .. The-order-of-the-phoenix, , vol.49, p.426

H. Potter and T. .. Prince, , vol.1, p.421

H. Potter, . The-deathly, and . Hallows, , vol.50, p.434, 254257.

H. Potter and . The-cursed, , vol.363, p.420

S. Sartre and .. .. Jean-paul,

. .. Qu'est-ce-que-la-littérature, , vol.295, p.429

A. .. Schwabach, , p.411

S. Scott and . .. Walter,

. .. Ivanhoe, , vol.188, p.189

W. .. Shakespeare,

A. Midsummer-night,

. .. Hamlet, , vol.185, p.323

K. Henry and I. .. ,

K. Lear and .. .. , , vol.181, p.253

. .. Macbeth, , vol.180, p.260

M. .. Shapiro,

J. K. Rowling, The Wizard behind Harry Potter

Z. .. Shavit,

, Poetics of Children's Literature, vol.8, p.435

M. .. Shelley,

. .. Frankenstein, , vol.220, p.381

I. .. Smadja,

H. Potter, Les raisons d'un succès, vol.14, p.319

I. Smadja and P. .. Bruno,

H. Potter and ?. .. Ou-démon, , p.14

S. .. Smith,

J. K. Rowling, A Biography, vol.2, p.365

J. .. Spyri,

. .. Heidi, , vol.22, p.61

J. .. Stephens,

. , Language and Ideology in Children, vol.304, p.332

R. L. Stevenson,

D. Strange-case-of, M. Jekyll, and . .. Hyde, , vol.210, pp.217-219

R. L. Stine,

. , You Can't Scare Me!

B. .. Stoker,

. .. Dracula, , vol.74, p.245

T. .. Stoppard,

. .. Arcadia,

J. .. Sunderland, , vol.233, p.234

J. .. Swift,

.. .. Gulliver's-travels,

T. .. Todorov,

, Introduction à la littérature fantastique, vol.78, p.269

J. Tolkien and .. .. Ronald-reuel,

.. .. The-hobbit, , vol.23, p.90

, The Lord of the Rings, vol.23, p.175

. Tree and . .. Leaf, , vol.30, p.139

. .. Roverandom, , vol.297, p.300

J. R. Townsend,

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P. L. Travers,

M. Poppins and .. .. , , vol.23, p.77

A. .. Treneman,

R. Trites and . .. Seelinger, , vol.221, p.361

N. .. Tucker and I. .. Visser, , vol.39, pp.128-131

. , The Narrator's Voice, vol.19, p.29

D. L. Wallace, , vol.109, p.391

J. .. Washick, , vol.58, p.59

V. .. Watson,

. , The Cambridge Guide to Children's Books in English, vol.126, p.129

P. .. Waugh,

S. .. Westerfeld,

. .. Pretties,

K. E. Westman, , vol.9, pp.190-192

E. B. White,

.. .. Charlotte's-web, , vol.11, p.111

L. A. Whited,

I. The, H. Tower, and . Potter, McGonagall's Prophecy Fulfilled: The Harry Potter Critical Library, vol.59, p.61

O. .. Wilde,

, The Picture of Dorian Gray, vol.335, pp.205-213

J. F. Wilson, , vol.399, p.422

S. .. Wolosky,

T. Riddles-of-harry and . .. Potter, , vol.64, p.425

. Zimmerman and .. .. Virginia,

J. .. Zipes,

. Sticks and . .. Stones, , vol.12, p.13