Décision résidentielle des ménages : entre choix et contraintes

Abstract : The residential choice depends to a certain number of constraints: whether internal to the household or resulting from market distortion, these constraints change considerably the choices set of the households. The first part of the thesis is about the internal constraints to the household. The resulting work is a continuation of the work realized on the family economy and that of decision-making depending on their mobility. The first constraint presented is about the discrimination on the prices in the housing market. The literature has studied in detail the question of the discrimination in access to the housing highlighting a restricted and tacit access to the immigrant households, but no study has ever considered the highlighting of a potential residential discrimination by prices. In this article, we study the effective rent differences between French natives and immigrants, using the decomposition proposed by Oaxaca & Blinder (1973). We search to explain theses rent differentials by a part attributable to individual choices differences and another due to a discrimination on the housing market based on the data of the 1996 housing survey. Although no discrimination by price has clearly been shown, however some housing characteristics seem more expensive for immigrants. The second part of the thesis presents two constraints intra-households. The first of that is housing occupied by agents before they merge in order to create a household. The literature has deeply studied the residential mobility choices of couples through most of the stages of the life cycle, without including that of the household formation. However, this would allow taking into account the plurality of decision makers inside the household. This chapter offer a collective model of the household formation, measuring the probability that a couple, together, occupies the dwelling occupied by the man single, the one occupied by the woman single, compared to the fact of refuse them both, based on the estimations of a multinomial logit model. We work on the data housing national survey of 2002 which allow us to trace the totality the mobility paths of two agents. We studie the choice of the first household housing in the sense of its initial occupation. The elaboration of the theoretical model, based on a collective type model, where agents realized a negotiation, including the situation where the two may not have to leave the respective homes, in the couple threat points. We propose an enhanced version of the model where we argue that the decision of the collective housing can implied an inefficiency in the futures couple decisions. Although the man housing seems to be a proven choice, wage inequality between men and women, as well as the age difference within the couple tend to significantly influence the couples choice. Then, the housing choice, for a couple, has to take into account the daily travel time between home and workplace. The agents, having a localized job, choose a housing which meets their needs in a region where space occupation is strongly heterogeneous and housing supply is not uniformly distributed. The idea of this article is to measure the impact of agents individual characteristics on the attached decision of the household travel times, as well as how the agents allocated theses movements. The data are these of the French 1999 census of the population, enhanced with communal data and agents travel times. We show that a distinction can be realized between men and women on the attraction to the employment poles and the job stability.
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Delphine Drouet. Décision résidentielle des ménages : entre choix et contraintes. Economies et finances. Université de Cergy Pontoise, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CERG0966⟩. ⟨tel-02284344⟩

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