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Generic and specific computational principles for visual anticipation of motion trajectories

Abstract : Vision is initiated in the retina, where light is converted into electrical signals by photoreceptors, sent to bipolar cells then ganglion cells, generating spike trains. Visual information is then transmitted to the thalamus via the optic nerve which in turn transmits it to the visual cortex. The retinal processing alone takes time, up to 150 ms, not to mention the time lags introduced by synaptic transmissions between the three processing units. This shows that the existence of compensatory mechanisms to reduce processing delays is absolutely essential. These compensatory mechanisms are known as anticipation. Anticipation first occurs at the level of the retina and is further carried out by the primary visual cortex. In its first occurrence, anticipation is either characterized by a shift in the the peak response, or a short range wave of activation. In the second case, it is characterized by a wider range wave of activation. The first contribution of this thesis is the development of a generalized 2D model of the retina, mimicking three types of ganglion cells : Fast OFF cells with gain control, direction selective cells with gap junction connectivity, and differential motion cells connected through an upstream amacrine circuit, able of anticipating different kind of moving stimuli. The second contribution is to use our retina model as an input to a mean field cortical model to reproduce motion anticipation as observed in voltage sensitive dye imaging recordings. Throughout our work, we will study the effect of non linear phenomena involved in anticipation, as well as connectivity, both at the level of the retina and the primary visual cortex. The integrated retinocortex model allowed us to study the effects of anticipation on two-dimensional stimuli, and to highlight the collaborative aspect of anticipation mechanisms in the retina and the cortex.
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Selma Souihel. Generic and specific computational principles for visual anticipation of motion trajectories. Bioinformatics [q-bio.QM]. COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015 - 2019), 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019AZUR4114⟩. ⟨tel-02414632v2⟩

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