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Nanodéfauts formés sous irradiation aux électrons dans l’aluminium

Abstract : Under irradiation, flows of particles (neutrons, ions, electrons) induce ponctual defects (vacancies and interstitials) which generate extended defects (dislocation loops, cavities) that are responsible for materials weakening. Aluminum is a low mass material with a low displacement energy (Ed=16-19 eV) which allows the creation of extended defects directly under electron irradiation in a high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). This instrument allows not only a fine characterization of nanodefects but also to study their evolution in situ under irradiation, depending on temperature, damage rate and a partial pressure of hydrogen. We noticed an important effect of the hydrogen partial pressure on the kinetic of formation of the cavities and dislocation loops. Simultaneously, we developped a multiscale modelisation of finite size effets and structure discretisation on equilibrium shapes of cavities based on binding and surface energies determined by ab initio calculation of small vacancy clusters and mixted hydrogen vacancy clusters. Experimental characterization of cavity shapes according to the cavity radius reveals three regular shapes : a cross shape bounded by {100} surfaces, an octahedral non-truncated shape bounded by {111} surfaces and an octahedral truncated shape, bounded by {100} and {111} surfaces as well as the determination of a finite size effect predicted by the model. Also, measurements of cavity shape dispersion during its growth and decrease showed a dominant effet of magic numbers, fixed by geometry and frustration of the structure. Based on a thermodynamic model and a fine experimental characterization of volumic density, we propose a nucleation model of cavities under irradiation. We deduce from this model a critical cluster size and a rate of cavity nucleation depending of temperature and damage, which are compared to the corresponding experimental values extracted from in situ observations. Finally, we discuss the effect of hydrogen on the stability of vacancy-hydrogen clusters and on the kinteic of cavity nucleation.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, April 20, 2021 - 1:01:09 AM
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Camille Jacquelin. Nanodéfauts formés sous irradiation aux électrons dans l’aluminium. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS570⟩. ⟨tel-03202480⟩

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