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Theses

Approche phylogénomique de la dynamique spatiale et temporelle de diversification chez les Lépidoptères Saturniidae

Abstract : Understanding the evolutionary and ecological mechanisms governing the global patterns of Biodiversity is a central question in the fields of Ecology and Evolution. Phylogenies, as representations of the evolutionary relationships between lineages of the living world, are a fundamental support to identify the processes at the origin of these patterns. This thesis presents my work on the diversity and evolution of moths in family Saturniidae Boisduval 1837 (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea). This biologically and morphologically diverse family includes nearly 3,500 species distributed on all continents. Using phylogenomic approaches, I inferred the phylogenetic relationships between all knwown genera – from which I introduce a new classification – and I proposed a phylogeny for all species in the Neotropical genus Copaxa. I also designed a phylogenomic pipeline allowing the generation of megaphylogenies – i.e. dated phylogenies with more than a thousand tips and whose completion is >50% of all species – which I applied on a data set combining ultraconserved elements and DNA barcodes to generate a phylogeny including between 88 and 100% of all described saturniid species. The phylogenies thus inferred were used in order to characterize spatial and temporal diversification of Saturniidae. Altogether, my results demonstrate the importance of biotic factors in the spatial and temporal diversification of the family. In particular, I identified that the ability to spin plain and dense cocoons as well as high degrees of polyphagy have been the keys to the biogeographical success of Saturniidae, and that the heterogeneity of the diversification rates within the family was explained by the evolution of traits linked to the capital breeding strategy of these moths: increases in body size and in polyphagy level. I also inferred that the climatic niche of Copaxa moths, inherited from an ancestor distributed in the Holarctic region, shaped their diversification within the Neotropical region: the majority of species fly in mountainous areas, the climate of which is similar to those found in temperate areas, and the two independent colonizations of the Andean chain implied positive shifts in diversification rates (dispersification events). Taken together, these results represent a major advance in understanding the evolution of Saturniidae, Lepidoptera and more generally constitute a set of materials allowing a better understanding of the evolutionary processes which have generated the incredible diversity of insects.
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Pierre Arnal. Approche phylogénomique de la dynamique spatiale et temporelle de diversification chez les Lépidoptères Saturniidae. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Museum national d'histoire naturelle - MNHN PARIS, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020MNHN0012⟩. ⟨tel-03383739⟩

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