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Mémoire des mots émotionnels : études inter-tâches des effets de valence et d'arousal

Abstract : The aim of this thesis was to study how emotional valence effects on word memory in adults are modulated by word characteristics (arousal and imageability) and individual features (age and emotional state). In our experimental work, we used a cross-task approach combining a lexical access task (progressive demasking), and/or episodic memory tasks (free recall and memory recognition) depending on the questions This type of protocol based on a common verbal material allowed us to evaluate to what extent the emotional effects observed in these various tasks were based on common and/or distinct processes. First, we examined the relationship between the effects of emotional valence and arousal in progressive demasking and free recall on behavioral measures (Exp. 1-2). Emotional and positivity biases were present in progressive demasking and free recall; the effect of arousal was specific to progressive demasking. These results showed that predominantly distinct processes underpinned the effects of emotion in the two task types. Furthermore, additional analyses revealed that emotional valence interacted with imageability in free recall. Next, we manipulated word imageability to investigate its influence on the effects of emotional valence in free recall using a behavioral paradigm (Exp. 3) and an fMRI paradigm (Exp. 4). In these experiments, we obtained a negativity bias in free recall and specific activation in the left insula and left superior temporal gyrus for negative versus positive words. Furthermore, we showed that encoding of high-imageable words compared to low-imageable words was associated with specific activation of the left fusiform gyrus. Finally, behavioral studies in young and older adults allowed us to examine how age modulates emotional effects in free recall and memory recognition (Exp. 5-6) as well as in progressive demasking (Exp. 6). These paradigms indicated an age-related positivity effect in all three tasks. However, this effect would rely on distinct processes depending on the task. The results are interpreted both in models of visual word recognition adapted to affective processing and models of memory processing, as well as in the theoretical framework of affective aging.
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Pierrick Laulan. Mémoire des mots émotionnels : études inter-tâches des effets de valence et d'arousal. Psychologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021BORD0175⟩. ⟨tel-03708132⟩

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