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Effets de la contamination cuprique des sols viticoles sur la sensibilité de la vigne à un cortège de bio-agresseurs

Abstract : Following the ‘Grenelle of the environment’ conference, one of the current critical issues in agriculture is reducing the side effects of pesticides on the environment. Prolonged use of copper as a fungicide has led to copper accumulation in vineyard soils. Copper can induce aphytotoxicity. Its accumulation in plants may modify the morphology, biochemistry orphysiology of plant organs and may disturb the plant-pest interactions. The effects of coppercontamination of vineyard soils on the vine sensitivity to the pests received until now a verylimited attention. The present work investigates such effects.To carry out this work, we measured the levels of total and available copper in vineyard soils.We contaminated three grapevine cultivars with copper and measured the copper distributionand its effects on plant. Then, we evaluated the impact induced on three pests of the vine. Ourresults show that the available copper content in the soil is related to the total copper content(which results from the history of the plot), but also to total carbon and fine soil particlescontents. The copper absorption and the copper transferred to the aerial parts of the vine varyaccording to the cultivar. When copper contamination increases, the vine-pests interactionsare modified: a negative effects appears for Scaphoideus titanus and Plasmopara viticola,while important copper contaminations appears to promote the development ofNeofusicoccum parvum.These results underscore the need for a more integrated system approach, and to intensifyinteractions between agronomy and evolutionary ecology research.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01198938, version 1

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Laetitia Anatole-Monnier. Effets de la contamination cuprique des sols viticoles sur la sensibilité de la vigne à un cortège de bio-agresseurs. Ecologie, Environnement. Université de Bordeaux, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014BORD0378⟩. ⟨tel-01198938⟩

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