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Theses

Caractérisation et optimisation multiphysiques d'une paroi bicouche bio et géosourcée

Abstract : As a key sector in the fight against climate change and in the energy transition, the building industry must re-think and transform its activity. The use of raw and bio-based materials can help to respond to this environmental challenge effectively, enabling natural resources to be saved thanks to the recovery of agricultural waste and by-products, the consumption of fossil raw materials to be reduced, greenhouse gas emissions to be limited, and new economic sectors to be created and developed. In this context, this thesis research project aims to develop a constructive bio- and geo-based solution with low environmental impact. A thermally self-insulating vegetal concrete, used to fill a load-bearing structure, is considered. For the mix design of this lightweight concrete, the potential of two agricultural by-products, maize and sunflower, is evaluated. These two locally available aggregates are considered as substitutes for hemp shiv, which is currently the most commonly used of such products even though little is available. They are then mixed with a binder. Two mineral matrices are considered in the study: a lime-based preformulated binder and a metakaolin-based pozzolanic binder. The exploration of the microstructure of both vegetal concretes and their components, together with studies of the chemical interactions between the lignocellulosic particles and the mineral binder, provide a better understanding of the hygrothermal and mechanical performances of the bio-based materials developed. The very open and interconnected pore structure of pozzolanic-based composites is responsible for their higher moisture buffering capacity than those obtained with lime-based materials, while the water-soluble components of maize disturb the setting time and the mechanical behaviour of mineral binders after hardening, thus preventing the use of maize-based concrete in construction. From the standpoint of suitability for use, pozzolanic binder and sunflower bark chips appear to be the most promising combination of raw materials for designing a hygrothermally and mechanically effective bio-aggregate based concrete. In practice, vegetal concrete walls are rarely left uncoated in a building. The presence of wall coating is likely to influence the hygrothermal behaviour of the wall. The second part of the thesis work consists of evaluating and optimising the performances of an unfired earth-based finish coating. In this type of plaster, the clayey phase ensures the global cohesion of the material by acting as a binder for the sand grain skeleton. Depending on the water state of the material, more or less affected by the soil mineralogical composition, clay can induce drying shrinkage of the mortar, leading to cracking of the plaster. [...]
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2020TOU30258a.pdf
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  • HAL Id : tel-03244792, version 1

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Méryl Lagouin. Caractérisation et optimisation multiphysiques d'une paroi bicouche bio et géosourcée. Construction durable. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020TOU30258⟩. ⟨tel-03244792⟩

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