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Trends and Challenges in CMOS Design for Emerging 60 GHz WPAN Applications

Abstract : The extensive growth of wireless communications industry is creating a big market opportunity. Wireless operators are currently searching for new solutions which would be implemented into the existing wireless communication networks to provide the broader bandwidth, the better quality and new value-added services. In the last decade, most commercial efforts were focused on the 1-10 GHz spectrum for voice and data applications for mobile phones and portable computers (Niknejad & Hashemi, 2008). Nowadays, the interest is growing in applications that use high rate wireless communications. Multigigabit- per-second communication requires a very large bandwidth. The Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) technology was basically used for this issue. However, this technology has some shortcomings including problems with interference and a limited data rate. Furthermore, the 3-5 GHz spectrum is relatively crowded with many interferers appearing in the WiFi bands (Niknejad & Hashemi, 2008). The use of millimeter wave frequency band is considered the most promising technology for broadband wireless. In 2001, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) released a set of rules governing the use of spectrum between 57 and 66 GHz (Baldwin, 2007). Hence, a large bandwidth coupled with high allowable transmit power equals high possible data rates. Traditionally the implementation of 60 GHz radio technology required expensive technologies based on III-V compound semiconductors such as InP and GaAs (Smulders et al., 2007). The rapid progress of CMOS technology has enabled its application in millimeter wave applications. Currently, the transistors became small enough, consequently fast enough. As a result, the CMOS technology has become one of the most attractive choices in implementing 60 GHz radio due to its low cost and high level of integration (Doan et al., 2005). Despite the advantages of CMOS technology, the design of 60 GHz CMOS transceiver exhibits several challenges and difficulties that the designers must overcome. This chapter aims to explore the potential of the 60 GHz band in the use for emergent generation multi-gigabit wireless applications. The chapter presents a quick overview of the state-of-the-art of 60 GHz radio technology and its potentials to provide for high data rate and short range wireless communications. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 2 presents an overview about 60 GHz band. The advantages are presented to highlight the performance characteristics of this band. The opportunities of the physical layer of the IEEE 802.15.3c standard for emerging WPAN applications are discussed in section 3. The tremendous opportunities available with CMOS technology in the design of 60 GHz radio is discussed in section 4. Section 5 shows an example of 60 GHz radio system link. Some challenges and trade-offs on the design issues of circuits and systems for 60 GHz band are reported in section 6. Finally, section 7 presents the conclusion and some perspectives on future directions.
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Ahmed El Oualkadi. Trends and Challenges in CMOS Design for Emerging 60 GHz WPAN Applications. Mutamed Khatib. Advanced Trends in Wireless Communications, InTech, 2011, 978-953-307-183-1. ⟨10.5772/15494⟩. ⟨hal-00947252⟩

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