Manipulation of arthropod sex determination by endosymbionts: diversity and molecular mechanisms

Abstract : Arthropods exhibit a large variety of sex-determination systems both at the chromosomal and molecular level. Male heterogamety, female heterogamety, and haplodiploidy occur frequently, but partially different genes are involved. Endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia, Cardinium, Rickettsia and Spiroplasma, can manipulate host reproduction and sex determination. Four major reproductive manipulation types are distinguished: cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous parthenogenesis, male killing and feminization. In this review, we summarize the effects of these manipulation types, and how they interfere with arthropod sex determination in terms of host developmental timing, alteration of sex determination and modification of sexual differentiation pathways. Transitions between different manipulation types occur frequently, which suggests that they are based on similar molecular processes. We discuss how mechanisms of reproductive manipulation and host sex determination can be informative on each other, with a special focus on haplodiploidy. We end with future directions on how study of endosymbiont manipulation of host reproduction can be key to further study of arthropod sex determination.
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Sexual Development, Karger, 2014, pp.59-73
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Wen-Juan Ma, Fabrice Vavre, Leo W. Beukeboom. Manipulation of arthropod sex determination by endosymbionts: diversity and molecular mechanisms. Sexual Development, Karger, 2014, pp.59-73. 〈hal-01092616〉

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