Comparison of Hierarchical and Non-Hierarchical Classification for Motor Imagery Based BCI Systems

Cecilia Lindig-León 1 Nathalie Gayraud 2 Laurent Bougrain 1 Maureen Clerc 2
1 NEUROSYS - Analysis and modeling of neural systems by a system neuroscience approach
Inria Nancy - Grand Est, LORIA - AIS - Department of Complex Systems, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics
2 ATHENA - Computational Imaging of the Central Nervous System
CRISAM - Inria Sophia Antipolis - Méditerranée
Abstract : Introduction: Motor imagery (MI) based BCI systems record and analyze the brain activity to determine users' intentions while imagining moving some parts of their body. In order to build systems that are able to detect several commands, multiclass schemes need to be applied. Hierarchical methods allow solving multiclass problems by using a tree of binary classifiers, whose root discriminates between two groups, each one containing a half of the classes. Each succeeding node includes again only one half of the classes from the selected group, and the process is recursively repeated until each node contains a single class, from which the final decision can be inferred. In this study we compare a series of multiclass approaches to assert the benefits of hierarchical classification. The compared methods are based on two effective techniques for MI-discrimination, namely, Common Spatial Patterns (CSP) and Riemannian geometry, for which the hierarchical and non-hierarchical approaches have been considered. We include the CSP by Joint Diagonalization method (CSPbyJAD), which corresponds with a non-hierarchical approach; and its hierarchical counterpart, namely, Binary CSP. In addition, the non-hierarchical Minimum Distance to Riemannian Mean method (MDRM) [4] is also evaluated, together with its analogous hierarchical approach; a contribution of the present work called Hierarchical MDRM algorithm (HMDRM). All these methods have been applied on dataset 2a of the BCI competition IV to facilitate their comparison. The highest accuracies were reached by the BCSP and HMDRM methods, confirming the effectiveness of hierarchical algorithms.
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Cecilia Lindig-León, Nathalie Gayraud, Laurent Bougrain, Maureen Clerc. Comparison of Hierarchical and Non-Hierarchical Classification for Motor Imagery Based BCI Systems. The Sixth International Brain-Computer Interfaces Meeting, May 2016, Pacific Groove, United States. ⟨hal-01287636⟩

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