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Journal articles

Les neuroprothèses

Laurent Bougrain 1 Benjamin Le Golvan 1
1 NEUROSYS - Analysis and modeling of neural systems by a system neuroscience approach
Inria Nancy - Grand Est, LORIA - AIS - Department of Complex Systems, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics
Abstract : - IntroductionNeuroprostheses are electronic or electromechanical devices connected to the nervous system to replace a defective organ. This article aims to review the state of the art of these devices. - MethodsThis article successively presents various neuroprostheses. If cochlear implants exist now for almost sixty years, this last decade, technological solutions to restore other senses like sight with artificial retinas, and touch with artificial skins have made significant progress. Similarly, myoprotheses, brain-machine interfaces and exoskeletons that aim to restore the control of a member are often headlines in the news. Myoprotheses are intended to compensate for the lack of an upper limb amputation recording from the surface of the skin nerve impulses transmitted to the muscles to control a prosthetic hand. Brain-Machine Interfaces record neural activity within the motor cortex, more rarely from the surface of the scalp, for decoding the motor order and transmit it to a motorized limb. Finally, exoskeletons are mechanical structures enveloping all or part of the body to animate it. - ResultsCochlear implants and myoelectric prothetics are now regularly offered respectively for people with severe or profound hearing loss and for forearm amputees. Increasing the resolution of artificial retinas should help in the medium term to offer not to blind people by birth but macular degeneration sufferers a basic visual perception of the environment. Finally, non-invasive motor neuroprostheses begin to be included into rehabilitation programs for stroke. Invasive ones, which decode up to the direction of movement, will still require many years of research in particular to integrate sensory feedback.- DiscussionThus beyond the announcement effect to get the attention of the public and funders, and enthusiasm for novelty of journalists what about the expectations of potential users, disappointments and satisfactions of patients, the actual number of people equipped, price and opportunities to use such devices outside of laboratories. - ConclusionThis article aims to position these new technologies between reality and fiction, expectations of persons under a disability, fantasies of the augmented Man and scientific difficulties.
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Submitted on : Monday, March 14, 2016 - 8:50:13 AM
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Laurent Bougrain, Benjamin Le Golvan. Les neuroprothèses. L'Évolution Psychiatrique, Elsevier, 2016, ⟨10.1016/j.evopsy.2016.01.010⟩. ⟨hal-01287646⟩



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