GreenWare: Greening Cloud-Scale Data Centers to Maximize the Use of Renewable Energy

Abstract : To reduce the negative environmental implications (e.g., CO2 emission and global warming) caused by the rapidly increasing energy consumption, many Internet service operators have started taking various initiatives to operate their cloud-scale data centers with renewable energy. Unfortunately, due to the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and solar panels, currently renewable energy is often more expensive than brown energy that is produced with conventional fossil-based fuel. As a result, utilizing renewable energy may impose a considerable pressure on the sometimes stringent operation budgets of Internet service operators. Therefore, two key questions faced by many cloud-service operators are 1) how to dynamically distribute service requests among data centers in different geographical locations, based on the local weather conditions, to maximize the use of renewable energy, and 2) how to do that within their allowed operation budgets.In this paper, we propose GreenWare, a novel middleware system that conducts dynamic request dispatching to maximize the percentage of renewable energy used to power a network of distributed data centers, subject to the desired cost budget of the Internet service operator. Our solution first explicitly models the intermittent generation of renewable energy, e.g., wind power and solar power, with respect to varying weather conditions in the geographical location of each data center. We then formulate the core objective of GreenWare as a constrained optimization problem and propose an efficient request dispatching algorithm based on linear-fractional programming (LFP). We evaluate GreenWare with real-world weather, electricity price, and workload traces. Our experimental results show that GreenWare can significantly increase the use of renewable energy in cloud-scale data centers without violating the desired cost budget, despite the intermittent supplies of renewable energy in different locations and time-varying electricity prices and workloads.
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Fabio Kon; Anne-Marie Kermarrec. 12th International Middleware Conference (MIDDLEWARE), Dec 2011, Lisbon, Portugal. Springer, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS-7049, pp.143-164, 2011, Middleware 2011. 〈10.1007/978-3-642-25821-3_8〉
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Yanwei Zhang, Yefu Wang, Xiaorui Wang. GreenWare: Greening Cloud-Scale Data Centers to Maximize the Use of Renewable Energy. Fabio Kon; Anne-Marie Kermarrec. 12th International Middleware Conference (MIDDLEWARE), Dec 2011, Lisbon, Portugal. Springer, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS-7049, pp.143-164, 2011, Middleware 2011. 〈10.1007/978-3-642-25821-3_8〉. 〈hal-01597757〉

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