Abstract : A three-dimensional (3-D) method for tracking the coronary arteries through a temporal sequence of biplane X-ray angiography images is presented. A 3-D centerline model of the coronary vasculature is reconstructed from a biplane image pair at one time frame, and its motion is tracked using a coarse-to-fine hierarchy of motion models. Three-dimensional constraints on the length of the arteries and on the spatial regularity of the motion field are used to overcome limitations of classical two-dimensional vessel tracking methods, such as tracking vessels through projective occlusions. This algorithm was clinically validated in five patients by tracking the motion of the left coronary tree over one cardiac cycle. The root mean square reprojection errors were found to be submillimeter in 93% (54/58) of the image pairs. The performance of the tracking algorithm was quantified in three dimensions using a deforming vascular phantom. RMS 3-D distance errors were computed between centerline models tracked in the X-ray images and gold-standard centerline models of the phantom generated from a gated 3-D magnetic resonance image acquisition. The mean error was 0.69( 0.06) mm over eight temporal phases and four different biplane orientations.